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2022..05.16 什么是 "大替换 "的右翼阴谋论?

发表于 2022-9-24 22:27:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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The Economist explains
What is the “Great Replacement” right-wing conspiracy theory?
And why has it spread to mainstream politics?
BUFFALO, NEW YORK - MAY 15: People gather outside of Tops market on May 15, 2022 in Buffalo, New York. Yesterday a gunman opened fire at the store, killing ten people and wounding another three. Suspect Payton Gendron was taken into custody and charged with first degree murder. U.S. Attorney Merrick Garland released a statement, saying the US Department of Justice is investigating the shooting "as a hate crime and an act of racially-motivated violent extremism". (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)
May 16th 2022



IN “THE GREAT GATSBY”, Tom Buchanan, a boorish plutocrat, recounts what he learned from a book called “The Rise of the Coloured Empires”, by a man called “Goddard”. “It’s a fine book, and everybody ought to read it,” says Buchanan. “The idea is if we don’t look out the white race will be—will be utterly submerged.” F. Scott Fitzgerald was parodying, just about, a book called “The Rising Tide of Colour against White World-Supremacy” by Lothrop Stoddard. Stoddard was admired by Adolf Hitler. He argued that the “Nordic race” that he held responsible for all world progress was being outbred by darker-skinned, supposedly inferior types. In Fitzgerald’s novel, Buchanan’s support for Goddard is a sign that he is a stupid, dislikeable man.

Almost a century later, the shooting of 13 people, 11 of them black, at a supermarket in Buffalo, a city in upstate New York on May 14th, points to the continuing popularity of such racist ideas. The suspect, Payton Gendron, an 18-year-old who streamed his massacre on Twitch, a gaming website, had apparently published a 180-page document online explaining his motivations. Much of it was copied directly from a similar “manifesto” written by the man who went on a killing spree in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 2019. In essence, it argued that there is an international Jewish conspiracy to engineer the migration of non-white people to historically white countries in an attempt to “replace” whites with a more pliant, racially inferior population. This is known as the “Great Replacement” theory.

The document suggests that Mr Gendron got his ideas by browsing 4chan, a message-board site which for years has incubated far-right conspiracy theories (QAnon, which holds that Donald Trump is fighting a paedophile cabal that secretly runs the world, originated there). But the Great Replacement theory has a much longer pedigree. Having begun with books like Stoddard’s over a century ago, it took its latest form in one written by Renaud Camus, a French writer. In 2011 he argued that Muslims were being brought into France as part of a “genocide by substitution”. Mr Camus’s version is not explicitly anti-Semitic, instead blaming “replacist elites”. But, for conspiracy theorists, it is easy enough to jump from that to a sinister cabal of Jews.

Such ideas are spreading beyond extremist websites like 4chan to the broadcast media and mainstream politics. Tucker Carlson, a powerful Fox News host, has argued that Joe Biden and other Democratic politicians want to replace Americans with “more obedient voters from the third world”. J.D. Vance, a Republican candidate for the Senate in Ohio, has claimed that Mr Biden is “intentional” in encouraging Mexican traffickers to bring fentanyl, a powerful opiate, to America in order to kill Donald Trump’s voters. In France Eric Zemmour, a failed presidential candidate, said that “an Islamic civilisation is replacing a people from a Christian, Greco-Roman civilisation”. These ideas are nonsense. But as their persistence shows, they are powerful. And in America, the people who believe them all too often have access to guns.

什么是 "大替换 "的右翼阴谋论?
纽约州布法罗--5月15日:2022年5月15日,在纽约州布法罗,人们聚集在托普斯市场的外面。昨天,一名枪手向该商店开火,造成10人死亡,另有3人受伤。嫌疑人Payton Gendron被拘留,并被指控为一级谋杀。美国检察官梅里克-加兰(Merrick Garland)发表声明说,美国司法部正在调查这起枪击案,"这是一起仇恨犯罪,是以种族为动机的暴力极端主义行为"。(Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

在《伟大的盖茨比》中,汤姆-布坎南,一个粗野的财阀,讲述了他从一本名为《有色帝国的崛起》的书中学到的东西,这本书的作者叫 "戈达德"。"这是一本好书,每个人都应该读一读,"布坎南说。"它的意思是,如果我们不注意,白人将被--将被彻底淹没。" F.斯科特-菲茨杰拉德模仿的,正是洛特罗普-斯托达德的一本名为《反对白人世界至上主义的有色人种崛起之潮》的书。斯托达德受到了阿道夫-希特勒的钦佩。他认为,他认为对所有世界进步负有责任的 "北欧人种 "正在被肤色较深的所谓劣等人种所淘汰。在菲茨杰拉德的小说中,布坎南对戈达德的支持表明他是一个愚蠢、令人讨厌的人。

近一个世纪后,5月14日在纽约州北部城市布法罗的一家超市发生的13人被枪杀事件,其中11人是黑人,这表明这种种族主义思想仍在流行。嫌疑人佩顿-根德隆(Payton Gendron)是一名18岁的年轻人,他在游戏网站Twitch上直播了他的屠杀,显然在网上发表了一份180页的文件,解释了他的动机。其中大部分内容直接抄自2019年在新西兰克赖斯特彻奇疯狂杀人的男子写的类似 "宣言"。从本质上讲,它认为存在一个国际犹太阴谋,设计非白人向历史上的白人国家移民,试图用更柔顺、种族低劣的人口 "取代 "白人。这就是所谓的 "大替代 "理论。

该文件表明,根德隆先生通过浏览4chan网站获得了他的想法,4chan是一个多年来孵化极右阴谋论的信息板网站(QAnon,认为唐纳德-特朗普正在与一个秘密统治世界的恋童癖集团作战,该网站就起源于此)。但 "大替换 "理论的血统要长得多。从一个多世纪前斯托达德的书开始,它的最新形式出现在法国作家雷诺-加缪的书中。2011年,他认为,穆斯林被带入法国是 "替代性种族灭绝 "的一部分。加缪先生的版本没有明确的反犹太主义,而是指责 "替代的精英"。但是,对于阴谋论者来说,很容易从这一点跳到一个阴险的犹太人集团。

这种想法正在超越4chan这样的极端主义网站,传播到广播媒体和主流政治。强大的福克斯新闻主持人塔克-卡尔森认为,乔-拜登和其他民主党政客想用 "来自第三世界的更听话的选民 "来取代美国人。俄亥俄州参议院共和党候选人J.D. Vance声称,拜登先生 "有意 "鼓励墨西哥人贩子将芬太尼(一种强大的鸦片制剂)带到美国,以杀害唐纳德-特朗普的选民。在法国,失败的总统候选人埃里克-泽穆尔说,"伊斯兰文明正在取代一个来自基督教、希腊罗马文明的民族"。这些想法是无稽之谈。但正如它们的持续存在所表明的,它们是强大的。而在美国,相信这些想法的人往往有机会获得枪支。
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