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2022.09.05 克里斯蒂娜-费尔南德斯-德-基什内尔

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发表于 2022-9-9 03:03:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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Who is Cristina Fernández de Kirchner?
Argentina’s divisive vice-president is embroiled in a corruption trial and an assassination attempt
Argentina's Vice President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner speaks to supporters as they gather outside her house, days after Fernandez was accused in a corruption case, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 27, 2022. REUTERS/Mariana Nedelcu
Sep 5th 2022

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Last month a prosecutor in Argentina sought a 12-year jail term for Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, the country’s vice-president, for her alleged involvement in funnelling padded public contracts to a crony at a cost of $1bn to the taxpayer. Ms Fernández, who denies all allegations as political persecution, called on her supporters to gather outside her apartment in Recoleta, a posh neighbourhood of Buenos Aires, the capital. As she was greeting some of them on September 1st, a man pointed a pistol close to her head and pulled the trigger. No shot was fired, seemingly because the gun malfunctioned. Argentina’s president, Alberto Fernández (no relation), called it the “gravest” event since the country returned to democracy in 1983. He declared a public holiday to allow tens of thousands of Peronists—the movement to which both belong—to march in support of the vice-president. But who is Ms Fernández, Argentina’s most polarising politician?

Born in 1953 into a modest family, her father a bus driver and her mother a clerk, Ms Fernández studied law at the University of La Plata, near Buenos Aires. There she met Néstor Kirchner, who became her husband and political partner. In 1976, to escape the attention of the country’s military dictatorship, the couple moved to Néstor’s home province of Santa Cruz, in remote Patagonia, where they made their political careers. He became governor and she a senator, establishing themselves as leaders of the leftist-populist wing of Peronism. Their breakthrough came in 2003 when Néstor was elected as Argentina’s president. She followed him in the job; after he died of a heart attack she won a second term.

In office she combined progressive measures, such as the legalising of same-sex marriage, with a nationalist and statist economic policy. She renationalised YPF, an oil company, and returned private pension funds to state hands. Helped by a boom in the prices of the agricultural exports she ramped up subsidies and handouts for poorer Argentines. Her rule was marked by conflict: she tried and failed to control the judiciary and private media groups; when she imposed windfall taxes on farmers, they staged big protests. She could not prevent her chief opponent, Mauricio Macri, a conservative businessman, from succeeding her in 2015. Ms Fernández returned to the Senate.

There, she engineered her revenge against Mr Macri by uniting the disparate factions of Peronism. She expediently gave the top slot on the movement’s presidential slate to Mr Fernández, who appealed to more moderate voters. Mr Fernández won the presidency in 2019, with Ms Fernández as his deputy. But their relationship soon suffered strain: she opposed his agreement with the IMF to renegotiate Argentina’s debts and blocked his efforts to curb the fiscal deficit.

A resilient and cunning politician who instinctively knows when to talk and when to stay silent, Ms Fernández has exploited Argentina’s penchant for melodrama and political theatre. She has framed her trial for corruption as a conspiracy by the judiciary, the media and business to silence a champion of the poor. But her star is waning: though she may run again for the presidency next year, her core support is now only around 25% of the electorate. Many of her opponents have claimed that the thwarted attempt on her life was staged to divert attention from the corruption case, although there is no evidence to suggest this. Peronism has rallied round her for now, but sympathy over the alleged assassination attempt may soon wear off. ■



谁是克里斯蒂娜-费尔南德斯-德-基什内尔?
阿根廷有分歧的副总统被卷入腐败审判和暗杀企图中
2022年8月27日,在阿根廷布宜诺斯艾利斯,阿根廷副总统克里斯蒂娜-费尔南德斯-德-基什内尔在她家门外集会时对支持者说,在费尔南德斯被指控犯有腐败案的几天后。REUTERS/Mariana Nedelcu
2022年9月5日



上个月,阿根廷一名检察官要求对该国副总统克里斯蒂娜-费尔南德斯-德-基什内尔(Cristina Fernández de Kirchner)判处12年监禁,因为她被指控参与向一名亲信提供填充的公共合同,使纳税人损失了10亿美元。费尔南德斯女士否认所有指控是政治迫害,呼吁她的支持者聚集在她位于首都布宜诺斯艾利斯高尚社区雷科莱塔的公寓外。9月1日,当她与其中一些人打招呼时,一名男子用手枪指着她的头并扣动了扳机。没有开枪,似乎是因为枪出了故障。阿根廷总统阿尔贝托-费尔南德斯(Alberto Fernández,非亲属)称这是该国1983年恢复民主以来 "最严重 "的事件。他宣布放假,让数以万计的贝隆主义者--两人都属于的运动--进行游行,支持副总统。但费尔南德斯女士是谁?

费尔南德斯女士1953年出生于一个普通家庭,父亲是巴士司机,母亲是文员。在那里她遇到了内斯托尔-基什内尔,后者成为她的丈夫和政治伙伴。1976年,为了逃避国家军事独裁政权的关注,这对夫妇搬到了内斯托尔的家乡圣克鲁斯省,位于偏远的巴塔哥尼亚,在那里他们开始了自己的政治生涯。他成为省长,她成为参议员,确立了他们作为贝隆主义左翼民粹派领导人的地位。2003年,内斯托尔当选为阿根廷总统,他们取得了突破性进展。她跟随他工作;在他死于心脏病后,她赢得了第二个任期。

在任期内,她将进步的措施,如同性婚姻合法化,与民族主义和国家主义的经济政策相结合。她将石油公司YPF重新国有化,并将私人养老基金交还给国家。在农产品出口价格上涨的帮助下,她加大了对较贫困的阿根廷人的补贴和施舍。她的统治充满了冲突:她试图控制司法机构和私人媒体集团,但失败了;当她对农民征收意外税时,他们举行了大规模的抗议。她无法阻止她的主要对手、保守派商人毛里西奥-马克里在2015年接替她。费尔南德斯女士回到了参议院。

在那里,她通过团结庇隆主义的不同派别,策划了对马克里先生的报复。她权宜之计是将该运动的总统候选人名单中的头号位置给了费尔南德斯先生,后者吸引了更多温和派选民。费尔南德斯先生在2019年赢得了总统职位,费尔南德斯女士是他的副手。但他们的关系很快就出现了紧张:她反对他与国际货币基金组织达成重新谈判阿根廷债务的协议,并阻止他遏制财政赤字的努力。

费尔南德斯女士是一位坚韧而狡猾的政治家,她本能地知道什么时候该说话,什么时候该保持沉默,她利用了阿根廷对情节和政治戏剧的偏好。她把对她的腐败审判说成是司法部门、媒体和企业界的阴谋,目的是让一个穷人的支持者闭嘴。但她的明星效应正在减弱:尽管她可能在明年再次竞选总统,但她的核心支持率现在只占选民的25%左右。她的许多反对者声称,企图谋杀她的行动受挫是为了转移对腐败案件的注意力,尽管没有证据表明这一点。贝隆主义目前已经团结在她周围,但对所谓暗杀企图的同情可能很快就会消失。■
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