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2022.09.04 韩国人回归农村生活

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发表于 2022-9-4 17:39:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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据国际原子能机构称,俄罗斯占领的扎波罗热的核电站已经从乌克兰的电网中断开。联合国的核监督机构说,该工厂现在依靠一条备用线路。俄罗斯和乌克兰相互指责对方在工厂附近进行炮击,这引起了人们对核灾难的担忧。周六,土耳其总统雷杰普-塔伊普-埃尔多安提出对峙进行调停。

唐纳德-特朗普在宾夕法尼亚州的一次集会上称乔-拜登总统是 "国家的敌人"。这位前总统就联邦调查局搜查他在佛罗里达州的房产一事抨击拜登先生,称这是 "美国历史上任何政府最令人震惊的滥用权力行为之一"。特朗普先生在宾夕法尼亚州为11月中期选举前的两位共和党候选人做宣传。

瑞典表示,它将在 "战争之冬 "之前向北欧和波罗的海能源公司提供流动性担保。这些担保将帮助企业满足电力交易所需的抵押品要求,由于能源价格飙升,这些抵押品已经上升。在宣布这一消息之前,俄罗斯表示,它将在原定于周六结束的为期三天的关闭后继续关闭北溪1号海底天然气管道。

统治加沙地带的激进组织哈马斯在周日处决了五名巴勒斯坦人。哈马斯当局说,其中两人曾向以色列提供情报,导致对巴勒斯坦目标的打击。(其他三人被判定犯有谋杀罪。)这些处决是2017年以来巴勒斯坦领土上的第一次。人权组织批评了哈马斯的法庭程序,以及保留死刑的做法。

成千上万的俄罗斯人在周六的葬礼上向苏联最后一位领导人米哈伊尔-戈尔巴乔夫表示敬意。克里姆林宫只提供了国葬的 "元素",仪式伴随着严密的安保。戈尔巴乔夫被许多自由派俄罗斯人誉为改革派英雄。但弗拉基米尔-普京却指责他允许苏联解体。普京先生以日程安排冲突为由,没有出席葬礼。

中国扩大了对西南地区特大城市成都部分地区的封锁,并扩大了那里的大规模covid-19测试,以控制病例的激增。这个中国第六大城市自周四以来一直被关闭。早些时候,深圳的大部分地区,一个科技大都市,进入了周末的封锁状态。六个区的居民被告知要停止 "不必要的行动和活动"。

美国国家航空航天局(NASA)在修复推进剂泄漏的困难后,取消了其第二次发射月球火箭的尝试。这是美国宇航局在五天内第二次取消发射;第一次努力因发动机故障而流产。美国宇航局说,现在的发射将至少推迟几周。耗资数十亿美元的阿特米斯计划设定的目标是在2025年前将人类送上月球。

本周关键词:Kwichon,韩国人对回归农村生活的一种说法,在韩国年轻人中越来越流行。阅读全文。


智利的宪法公投

照片。环保局
周日,智利人投票决定是拒绝还是批准新宪法。它将取代现行宪法,该宪法是在1980年军事独裁统治下起草的。该文本由155名代表组成的会议撰写,该会议是在2019年对不平等现象进行抗议后召开的。它有388条,将成为世界上最长的宪章之一,并包括任何宪法中规定的最广泛的权利。除了住房、工作、医疗保健、教育和体育之外,智利人还将拥有堕胎的权利。土著人民将被授予自治领土。

这种全面的变化使许多智利人感到不安。民意调查显示,大多数人打算拒绝该草案文本。然而,有一个因素仍然可能改变结果。十年来第一次,如果选民不投票,将被罚款。如果年轻人成群结队地参加投票,分析家们说,宪法可能还会被批准。

欧洲能源过山车

照片。AFP via Getty images
在过去两周里,能源交易商难以置信地看着欧洲天然气和电力市场的爆炸。2022年第四季度的天然气期货短暂地触及每兆瓦时350欧元(350美元)(大流行前的典型价格为30欧元左右)。法国白天的电力--特别昂贵,因为白天的需求是最高的--达到2500欧元以上。作为比较,核电站的运行成本约为每兆瓦时30欧元,而法国有许多核电站,尽管大多数核电站因维修而关闭。价格泡沫缩小了,但仍停留在惊人的水平,天然气每兆瓦时250欧元,法国日间电力1750欧元。

欧洲能源价格的下一步是什么?德国将很快决定是否在12月之后继续开放其剩余的三座核电站,而法国正在努力重启其更多的核电站。幸运的是,俄罗斯在8月31日关闭了通往德国的北溪1号管道,据说是为了维护,这几乎没有影响市场。俄罗斯试图进行能源讹诈的影响可能正在减弱。

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才华横溢的帕特里夏-海史密斯

照片。GETTY IMAGES
在瑞士的最后一个家,帕特里夏-海史密斯培养了一种浸泡在酒中的孤独感。粉丝们仍然追捧她,渴望见到这位《火车上的陌生人》、《天才雷普利先生》和其他几十本鬼书的作者,但海史密斯更喜欢她的猫、蜗牛和她在书中发明的人。她曾经写道:"梦想和现实之间的差异才是真正的地狱"。

然而,海史密斯曾经年轻,充满希望,在性方面也是不可抗拒的。"本周末在电影院上映的Eva Vitija的新纪录片《Loving Highsmith》中讲述了一位前女性情人,"她的征服次数多得惊人"。这部影片从日记、笔记本和与前伴侣(都是女性)的对话中,描述了一个与自己不和的迷人女人。尽管海史密斯写了《盐的代价》(The Price of Salt)(1952年),这是第一部关于女同性恋爱情的小说,有一个圆满的结局(现在更出名的是《卡罗尔》),但她自己的关系让她陷入了自我厌恶的泥潭。最后,她最心爱的伙伴是她的打字机和她的日记,她曾在日记中写道:"当然,写作是对我无法生活、无法生活的一种替代。"

试管婴儿和癌症风险

照片。苏特斯托克
在冷冻解冻胚胎移植(FET)中,这是一种越来越流行的体外受精方法,胚胎在植入子宫之前被暂时冰冻。一些证据表明,这比直接移植更有可能受孕。但是根据《PLOS医学》杂志的一项研究,使用FET受孕的孩子也可能比通过其他方式出生的孩子更容易患癌症。

在丹麦、芬兰、挪威和瑞典研究了约800万名儿童。其中近23000人是通过FET受孕的。其中48人被诊断出患有癌症,最常见的是白血病和中枢神经系统的肿瘤。

这些病例的数量太少,无法证明有明确的联系。而当研究人员将所有通过试管婴儿出生的孩子作为一个群体进行分析时,他们发现癌症风险没有增加。但随着越来越多的人使用辅助生殖,对FET的进一步调查是有必要的。

周末简介。利兹-特拉斯,英国可能的下任首相

照片。GETTY IMAGES
如果里兹-苏纳克在9月5日成为保守党领袖,这将是自唐纳德-特朗普在2016年击败希拉里-克林顿赢得美国总统职位以来,政治民调行业的最大失意。目前,利兹-特拉斯(Liz Truss)似乎有压倒性的可能赢得保守党成员的民意调查,并接替鲍里斯-约翰逊(Boris Johnson)成为该党领袖,并随之成为英国首相。投注市场暗示,她有95%的机会获胜。她是谁?

特拉斯女士是英国政府中最有经验的成员之一。她于2010年首次当选,2014年在大卫-卡梅伦(David Cameron)的领导下进入内阁担任农业部长。在卡梅伦先生的继任者的领导下,她继续在高层任职,担任过司法大臣、财政部首席秘书、贸易大臣和最近的外交大臣等职务。

她继承了她的英雄撒切尔夫人的衣钵。她的首要任务是通过减税和监管改革来改善英国的低生产力。她计划削减工资税并取消提高公司税的计划。特拉斯女士将财政宽松会导致通货膨胀的警告置之不理。

她对保守党成员的吸引力很大程度上是一种无情的乐观主义。尽管约翰逊先生在经历了两年丑闻缠身之后于7月被他的同事们赶走,但他仍然得到了普通党员的喜爱,特别是在实现脱欧方面。她是现代保守党内肌肉型文化保守主义新学说的有力倡导者:支持言论自由,反对修正主义历史学家和新的性别理论。

特拉斯女士的批评者认为她是个怪人,是个小人物,特别是她对撒切尔夫人遗产的援引。她在威斯敏斯特以外最出名的是作为农业部长发表的一次笨拙的演讲,承诺要开放 "猪肉市场"。然而,她却一再被低估,包括苏纳克先生。

每周填字游戏

我们的填字游戏是为有经验的十字架爱好者和新来者设计的。两组线索都给出了相同的答案,这些答案都在本周的《经济学人》杂志的文章中出现。

隐秘的线索

1下 像老摇滚明星一样打呼噜的坏品味? (7,5)

1下 流浪者被国内最后一名搭车者接走 (6)

2横 恶毒的混蛋抓住了一个拥抱和一个吻 (5)

3 跨越东方的力量被困在沼泽地里 (6)

事实线索

1下 关于税收的冗长法令 (7,5)

1横 哪些地方的孩子应该在学校里吃五倍的饭?

2横 螃蟹血液凝结的细菌类型

3 across 如果建立在谎言之上,什么是不值得拯救的?

请在北京时间周一上午9点前将所有四个答案发到 crossword@economist.com,同时附上你的家乡和国家。我们将从有正确答案的人中随机挑选,并在下周的版本中公布获奖者。


本周测验的获胜者

感谢所有参加本周测验的人。从各大洲随机选出的获奖者是。

亚洲。Masnoon Bujand,马来西亚,古晋

北美洲:Ina Tavena,美国图森市

中美洲和南美洲。Alejandro Jara,智利圣地亚哥

欧洲:史蒂夫-雷纳,英国,伦敦

非洲。纳伦-纳里斯穆鲁,南非,德班

大洋洲。约翰-赖特,新西兰奥克兰

他们都给出了正确的答案:朱诺、犹他、剑、奥马哈、黄金。主题是1944年6月的D-Day登陆海滩的名称。

艺术家的作用是不要看走眼。

黑泽明




The Russian-occupied nuclear power plant in Zaporizhia has been disconnected from Ukraine’s grid, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency. The UN’s nuclear watchdog said the plant is now relying on a reserve line. Russia and Ukraine blame each other for shelling near the plant, which has raised fears of a nuclear disaster. On Saturday Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey’s president, offered to mediate in the standoff.

Donald Trump called President Joe Biden an “enemy of the state” during a rally in Pennsylvania. The former president slammed Mr Biden for the FBI’s raid of his estate in Florida, calling it “one of the most shocking abuses of power by any administration in American history”. Mr Trump was in Pennsylvania to promote two Republican candidates ahead of midterms in November.

Sweden said it would provide liquidity guarantees to Nordic and Baltic energy companies ahead of a “war winter”. The guarantees will help firms meet the collateral requirements needed to trade electricity, which have risen because of surging energy prices. The announcement came after Russia said it would keep the Nord Stream 1 undersea gas pipeline shut beyond a three-day closure that was due to end on Saturday.

Hamas, the militant group that rules the Gaza Strip, executed five Palestinians on Sunday. Two of them had provided Israel with intelligence that led to strikes on Palestinian targets, Hamas authorities said. (The other three had been convicted of murder.) The executions were the first in the Palestinian territories since 2017. Human-rights groups have criticised Hamas’s court proceedings, as well as the retention of the death penalty.

Thousands of Russians paid their respects to Mikhail Gorbachev, the last leader of the Soviet Union, at his funeral on Saturday. The ceremony, which the Kremlin offered only “elements” of a state funeral, was accompanied by heavy security. Gorbachev is hailed as a reformist hero by many liberal Russians. But Vladimir Putin has blamed him for allowing the USSR’s dissolution. Mr Putin did not attend the funeral, citing scheduling conflicts.

China extended its lockdown of parts of Chengdu, a megacity in the southwest, and expanded mass covid-19 testing there to contain a spike in cases. The country’s sixth-biggest city has been shut off since Thursday. Earlier much of Shenzhen, a tech metropolis, entered a weekend lockdown. Residents of six districts were told to halt “unnecessary movement and activities”.

NASA called off its second attempt to launch its Moon rocket, following difficulties fixing a propellant leak. This was NASA’s second launch cancellation in five days; the first effort was aborted by an engine glitch. The launch will now be delayed by several weeks at least, NASA said. The Artemis programme, which costs billions of dollars, has set a goal of sending humans to the Moon by 2025.

Word of the week: kwichon, a Korean term for the return to rural life, increasingly popular among young South Koreans. Read the full story.


Chile’s constitutional referendum

PHOTO: EPA
On Sunday Chileans vote on whether to reject or approve a new constitution. It would replace the current charter, which was drafted under a military dictatorship in 1980. The text was written by a convention of 155 representatives, assembled after protests against inequality in 2019. At 388 articles, it would be one of the world’s longest charters and include the most extensive rights enshrined in any constitution. In addition to housing, work, health care, education and sports, Chileans would have the right to abortion. Indigneous peoples would be granted autonomous territories.

Such sweeping changes have perturbed many Chileans. Polls show that most plan to reject the draft text. Yet one factor could still upend the outcome. For the first time in a decade, voters will be fined if they do not cast a ballot. If young people turn out in droves, analysts say the constitution could yet be approved.

The European energy rollercoaster

PHOTO: AFP VIA GETTY IMAGES
Over the past two weeks energy traders have watched in disbelief as European gas and electricity markets exploded. Gas futures for the fourth quarter of 2022 briefly touched €350 ($350) per megawatt-hour (the typical pre-pandemic price was around €30). French daytime power—particularly expensive because demand is highest during the day—hit more than €2,500. For comparison, the running costs of a nuclear plant, of which France has many although most are closed for maintenance, are about €30 per MWh. The price bubble deflated, but settled at still-alarming levels, of €250 per MWh for gas and €1,750 for French daytime power.

Where next for European energy prices? Germany’s decision on whether to keep its remaining three nuclear plants open beyond December is due soon, and France is working on restarting more of its plants. Luckily Russia’s closure of the Nord Stream 1 pipeline to Germany on August 31st, supposedly for maintenance, barely moved markets. The impact of Russia’s attempts at energy blackmail may be weakening.

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The talented Patricia Highsmith

PHOTO: GETTY IMAGES
In her final home in Switzerland, Patricia Highsmith cultivated a booze-soaked solitude. Fans still pursued her, eager to meet the author of “Strangers on a Train”, “The Talented Mr Ripley” and dozens of other haunting books, but Highsmith preferred her cats, snails and the people she invented on the page. “The difference between dream and reality is the true hell,” she once wrote.

Yet Highsmith was once young, hopeful and sexually irresistible. “She had a staggering amount of conquests,” recounts one former female lover in “Loving Highsmith”, Eva Vitija’s new documentary about the author’s secret love life, which opens in cinemas this weekend. Drawing from diaries, notebooks and conversations with former paramours, all of them women, the film depicts a fascinating woman at odds with herself. Although Highsmith wrote “The Price of Salt” (1952), the first novel about a lesbian love affair with a happy ending (better known now as “Carol”), her own relationships left her mired in self-loathing. In the end, her most beloved companions were her typewriter and her diaries, in which she once wrote: “Writing, of course, is a substitute for the life I cannot live, am unable to live.”

Test-tube babies and cancer risks

PHOTO: SHUTTERSTOCK
In frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET), an increasingly popular method of in-vitro fertilisation, embryos are temporarily iced before being implanted in the uterus. Some evidence suggests this makes conception more likely than transferring them straight in. But children conceived using FET may also be more susceptible to cancer than those born through other means, according to a study in PLOS Medicine, a journal.

Some 8m children were studied across Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Almost 23,000 of them had been conceived through FET. Of that group, 48 had been diagnosed with cancer, most commonly leukaemia and tumours of the central nervous system.

The number of cases is too low to prove a definitive link. And when researchers analysed all children born through IVF as one group, they found no increased cancer risk. But as more people use assisted reproduction, further investigation of FET is warranted.

Weekend profile: Liz Truss, Britain’s likely next prime minister

PHOTO: GETTY IMAGES
If Rishi Sunak becomes leader of the Conservative Party on September 5th, it will be the greatest upset for the political polling industry since Donald Trump beat Hillary Clinton to win the American presidency in 2016. At present Liz Truss appears overwhelmingly likely to win the poll of Conservative members and succeed Boris Johnson as the party’s leader—and with it become Britain’s prime minister. Betting markets imply she has a 95% chance of prevailing. Who is she?

Ms Truss is one of the most experienced members of the British government. First elected in 2010, she joined the cabinet as agriculture secretary in 2014 under David Cameron. She continued at the top table under Mr Cameron’s successors, holding the posts of justice secretary, chief secretary to the Treasury, trade secretary and most recently foreign secretary.

She has adopted the mantle of her hero, Margaret Thatcher. Her overriding priority is improving Britain’s low productivity through a combination of tax cuts and regulatory reform. She plans to cut payroll taxes and cancel a planned raise in corporation tax. Ms Truss brushes aside warnings that fiscal loosening would be inflationary.

A large part of her appeal to Tory members is a relentless optimism. And also a loyalty to Mr Johnson who, despite being ousted by his colleagues in July after two scandal-plagued years, retains the affection of rank-and-file party members—not least for delivering Brexit. She is a forceful advocate of a new doctrine of muscular cultural conservatism in the modern Tory party: pro free speech, against revisionist historians and new gender theories.

Ms Truss’s critics regard her as an oddity and a lightweight, not least for her invocations of Thatcher’s legacy. She is best known outside of Westminster for a gawky speech delivered as agricultural secretary, pledging to open up “pork markets”. Yet she has been repeatedly underestimated—including by Mr Sunak.

Weekly crossword

Our crossword is designed for experienced cruciverbalists and newcomers alike. Both sets of clues give the same answers, all of which feature in articles in this week’s edition of The Economist:

Cryptic clues

1 down Bad taste to snore like an old rock star? (7,5)

1 across Stray picked up by last hitchhiker in country (6)

2 across Pernicious jerk grabs a hug and a kiss (5)

3 across Eastern power stuck in boggy bit of territory (6)

Factual clues

1 down A tedious edict about tax (7,5)

1 across Where five-times as many children should be fed meals in schools

2 across The type of bacteria that crabs’ blood clots around

3 across What is not worth saving if built on lies

Email all four answers by 9am BST on Monday to crossword@economist.com, along with your home city and country. We will pick randomly from those with the right answers and crown the winners in next week’s edition.


The winners of this week’s quiz

Thank you to everyone who took part in this week’s quiz. The winners, chosen at random from each continent, were:

Asia: Masnoon Bujand, Kuching, Malaysia

North America: Ina Tavena, Tucson, America

Central and South America: Alejandro Jara, Santiago, Chile

Europe: Steve Rayner, London, Britain

Africa: Naren Narismulu, Durban, South Africa

Oceania: John Wright, Auckland, New Zealand

They all gave the correct answers of Juno, Utah, Sword, Omaha, Gold. The theme was the names of the D-Day landing beaches in June 1944.

The role of the artist is to not look away.

Akira Kurosawa
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