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2017 约翰-L-亨尼西

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John L Hennessy
BIRTH:
September 22, 1952.

EDUCATION:
Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering (Villanova University, 1973); M.Sc. in Computer Science (S.U.N.Y. Stonybrook, 1975); Ph.D. in Computer Science (S.U.N.Y. Stonybrook, 1977).

EXPERIENCE
Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering (Stanford University, 1977-1983), Associate Professor (1983-1986), Willard and Inez Kerr Bell Endowed Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (1986-present), Dean (1996-1999), Provost (1999-2000), President (2000-2016), Director Knight-Hennessy Scholars Program, (2016-present). Concurrent industrial roles included Co-founder and Chief Scientist, MIPS Computer Systems (1984-1992); Chief Architect, Silicon Graphics Computer Systems (1992-1998).

HONORS AND AWARDS (SELECTED):
John J. Gallen Memorial Award, Villanova University (1983); Presidential Young Investigator, National Science Foundation (1984); Fellow, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (1991); Member, National Academy of Engineering (1992); IEEE Emannuel R. Piore Award (1994); Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1995); Fellow, Association for Computing Machinery (1997); John Von Neumann Medal (jointly with D. Patterson), IEEE (2000); Eckert-Mauchly Award, Association for Computing Machinery and IEEE Computer Society (2001); Seymour Cray Computer Engineering Award,(2001); Member, National Academy of Sciences (2002); NEC Computers and Communications Prize (2004); Founders Award, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2005); Fellow, Computer History Museum (2007); Member, American Philosophical Society (2008); Morris Chang Exemplary Leadership Award, Global Semiconductor Alliance (2010); IEEE Medal of Honor (2012); Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, United Kingdom (2017); ACM A.M. Turing Award (jointly with D. Patterson), 2017. At least 11 honororary doctorates as of 2018.

JOHN L HENNESSY DL Author Profile link
United States – 2017
CITATION
For pioneering a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry.

SHORT ANNOTATED
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ACM TURING AWARD
LECTURE VIDEO
RESEARCH
SUBJECTS
John L. Hennessy, born in 1952, was raised on Long Island’s north shore in Huntington, New York. His mother was a teacher before retiring to raise six children; his father was an electrical engineer. He was a tinkerer in high school, winning a science fair prize for an automated tic-tac-toe machine. This impressed the mother of his senior prom date, Andrea Berti, a girl he knew from his shelf-stocking job at the local King Kullen grocery store. He enrolled at Villanova University near Philadelphia, earning a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering (1973). For graduate school, he returned to Long Island, attending Stony Brook University (then S.U.N.Y. Stonybrook), married Andrea in 1974, and garnered a master’s (1975) and Ph.D (1977) in computer science.

Hennessy became an Assistant Professor at Stanford in September, 1977, remaining for virtually his entire career. Coincident with his first major honor, the John J. Gallen Memorial award by Villanova in 1983, he became an Associate Professor at Stanford. In 1986 he became the inaugural holder of the Willard and Inez Kerr Bell endowed chair.

His work centered on computer architecture. In 1980, microcomputers were rapidly advancing in complexity, to challenge the capabilities of minicomputers. The prevailing wisdom was that powerful processors needed very large, very rich instruction sets. As Hennessy observed in his Turing award lecture, “Microcomputers were competing on crazy things like here’s my new instruction to do this kind of thing … rather than saying here’s a set of standard benchmarks, and my machine is faster than your machine….”[1]

Hennessy won fame by challenging this mindset with his work on reduced instruction set computer architectures (RISC), along with David Patterson, a Berkeley professor. They first met at a microprocessor conference in 1980 where each was presenting similar micro-coding concepts. Hennessy recalled that “like Dave at Berkeley, we started with a clean slate with our graduate student class that was sort of a brainstorming class. We had a unique perspective. People were ignoring basic performance implications completely. It was an efficiency argument from the very beginning…. We both built prototypes of our design, and we could see that the advantages were clear. These were academic prototypes built by graduate students.”

Building on the original RISC work of John Cocke at IBM, in 1983, Hennessy’s Stanford team developed a prototype chip named MIPS (Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages). The first MIPS chip used 25,000 transistors and ran at a slightly faster clock speed than a similar Berkeley chip called RISC-2 (40,760 transistors).[2] To advance and commercialized this technology he co-founded MIPS Computer Systems in 1984, during a sabbatical from Stanford. He served eight years as their chief scientist, and six more as chief architect. MIPS was later acquired by Silicon Graphics, where its processors, combined with custom graphics developed by James Clark at Stanford, powered the high-performance graphics workstations relied on by Hollywood in the late 1980s and 1990s.

Patterson recalled that: “There is this remarkable point in time when it was clear that a handful of grad students at Berkeley or Stanford could build a microprocessor that was arguably better than what industry could build—faster, cheaper, more efficient…. RISC was very controversial, it was heretical… and John and I were on the RISC side while all the other people were on the CISC side…. We had a hard time convincing people of that.” [3]

While others argued about the relative merits of the Hennessy and Patterson variants of RISC, they recognized that the much larger contest was between RISC ideas embodied in both of their chips versus the CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) architectures then used throughout the industry from mainframes to personal computers. The two began a partnership, creating a systematic quantitative approach for designing faster, lower power and reduced complexity microprocessors, co-authoring two books that became landmark textbooks for the discipline. The first, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, now in its sixth edition, established enduring principles for generations of architects. [4]

Patterson quantified the impact of this work in his Turing lecture, given jointly with Hennessy: “Our colleagues at Intel … had great technology…. They got up to 350 million chips per year, not only dominating the desktop, but servers as well…. But the Post-PC era, starting with the iPhone in 2007 totally changed things… valuing area and energy as much as performance. Last year there were more than 20 billion chips with 32-bit processors in them. [Intel compatible] chips peaked in 2011 with dropping sales of PCs, and there are only 10 million chips in the cloud, so 99% of the processors today are RISC.” [5]

Hennessy’s career at Stanford led him from research to administrative leadership. Within five years of becoming department chair in 1994 he was appointed Provost, working with his former colleague, Jim Clark (founder of Silicon Graphics) to arrange a record-setting donation to create a biological engineering and sciences center. Clark said of Hennessy: “The most lasting impression was how good he was with students, how hard he worked and how helpful he was with my project." [6] In another year he rose to the top of a pool of five hundred candidates to became president of Stanford, helped by his exceptional connections to Silicon Valley’s high-tech industry. He co-founded Atheros as well as MIPS, and he served many years on the Cisco Systems Board of Directors, and subsequently on the Google Board, where in 2016 he became chairman of Alphabet, Google’s parent company. Under his leadership Stanford’s fundraising brought in $13 billion,” [7] including a five-year campaign from 2007-2011 that $6.23 billion, 60% more than the previous record for any university.[8]

During sixteen years as president, Hennessey reshaped Stanford’s buildings, the campus, its research profile, and its financial resources. An appreciative article in Stanford Magazine catalogued his accomplishments of his term: “70 building projects,” a cultural shift on campus to “a deep commitment to interdisciplinary collaboration,” and the “deft and decisive handling of” of the challenges of a major recession. Maybe most importantly, and surprisingly to many, was Hennessy’s devotion to students, to interdisciplinary studies, to the humanities, and the arts. Hennessy pushed for world-class performance and exhibition spaces, drawing on a comment from Itzhak Perlman that “Mr. President, Stanford is a great university, but you have terrible performance facilities.” Hennessy called this complaint “a gift to a president, because there’s a story I can repeat from an expert.” [9] Since retiring as president in 2016 he has been the inaugural director of the Knight-Hennessy Scholars program.

Fittingly, for the two RISC champions who took on the computer establishment in the 1980s, Hennessy and Patterson have returned to their first love—computing architectures—as they savor their joint selection as the 2017 ACM Turing award winners. Their Turing address challenged the idea that potential processor performance has little scope for dramatic improvement of the kind seen in previous decades. Not so: “innovations like domain-specific hardware, enhanced security, open instruction sets, and agile chip development” will multiple current system throughput “tens, hundreds, thousands of times—up to 62,000 times.” Their audience was listening as intently as ever.[10]

Hennessy has received numerous regional, national, and international awards, plus eleven honorary doctorates. His computing architecture awards include Fellows of IEEE (1991), American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1995), ACM (1997), and the UK Royal Academy of Engineering (2017). He received the Seymour Cray Computer Engineering award in 2001, and he was honored with IEEE’s highest honor, the Medal of Honor, in 2012, "for pioneering the RISC processor architecture and for leadership in computer engineering and higher education."

Hennessy and Patterson have won a number of joint awards, including the John von Neumann Medal (IEEE, 2000), the Eckert-Mauchly ACM/IEEE award in 2001; Fellows for the Computer History Museum in 2007, and the ACM Turing Award in 2017.

Author: Charles H. House

[1] Hennessy, John L. and David A. Patterson, “A new golden age for computer architecture: domain-specific hardware/software co-design, enhanced security, open instruction sets, and agile chip development,” 2017 ACM A.M.Turing Award lecture, 45th ISCA (International Symposium of Computer Architecture), Los Angeles, June 4, 2018 https://www.acm.org/hennessy-patterson-turing-lecture

[2] Hennessy, John L.; Forest Baskett; et al, “MIPS, A Microprocessor Architecture,” ACM SIGMICRO Newsletter, 13:4; 1983

[3] Patterson, David A., “A New Golden Age for Computer Architecture: History, Challenges, and Opportunities,” UC Berkeley ACM Turing Laureate Colloquium lecture, October 10, 2018; https://eecs.berkeley.edu/turing-colloquium/schedule/patterson

[4] Hennessy, J. L. and Patterson, D. A. Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach. 1990. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. San Mateo, CA. Second edition 1995, Third edition, 2002. Fourth Edition, 2007, Fifth Edition, 2011, Sixth Edition, 2018. Also Patterson, D.A. and Hennessy, J.L., Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface. 1993. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Second Edition, 1998, Third Edition 2005.

[5] Hennessy and Patterson, 2017 ACM A.M.Turing award lecture, op. cit.

[6] Swanson, Doug, “Favorite Son,” Stanford Magazine, May-June 2000; https://stanfordmag.org/contents/favorite-son

[7] Antonucci, Mike, “Where he took us,” Stanford Magazine, May-June 2016; https://stanfordmag.org/contents/where-he-took-us

[8] Kiley, Kevin, “Stanford raises $6.2B in five-year campaign,” Inside Higher Ed, February 8, 2012; http://www.insidehighered.com/qu ... -five-year-campaign

[9] Antonucci, Mike, “Where he took us,” op. cit.

[10] Hennessy and Patterson, 2017 ACM A.M.Turing award lecture, op. cit. Also Hennessy, John L. and David A. Patterson, “A New Golden Age for Computer Architecture,” Communications of the ACM (62:2) February 2019, pp. 48-60




约翰-L-亨尼西
出生时。
1952年9月22日。

教育背景。
电气工程学士(维拉诺瓦大学,1973年);计算机科学硕士(纽约州立大学石溪分校,1975年);计算机科学博士(纽约州立大学石溪分校,1977年)。

经历
电气工程助理教授(斯坦福大学,1977-1983),副教授(1983-1986),Willard和Inez Kerr Bell电气工程和计算机科学捐赠教授(1986至今),院长(1996-1999),教务长(1999-2000),校长(2000-2016),Knight-Hennessy学者项目主任(2016至今)。同时担任的工业角色包括MIPS计算机系统的共同创始人和首席科学家(1984-1992);Silicon Graphics计算机系统的首席建筑师(1992-1998)。

荣誉和奖项(部分)。
维拉诺瓦大学John J. Gallen纪念奖(1983年);国家科学基金会总统青年研究员(1984年);电气和电子工程师协会研究员(1991年);国家工程院院士(1992年);IEEE Emannuel R. Piore奖(1994年);美国艺术和科学学院研究员(1995年);计算机协会研究员(1997年);John Von Neumann勋章(与D. Patterson),IEEE(2000);Eckert-Mauchly奖,计算机械协会和IEEE计算机协会(2001);Seymour Cray计算机工程奖(2001);国家科学院院士(2002);NEC计算机和通信奖(2004);美国艺术与科学学院创始人奖(2005)。计算机历史博物馆研究员(2007年);美国哲学学会会员(2008年);全球半导体联盟莫里斯-张模范领导奖(2010年);IEEE荣誉勋章(2012年);英国皇家工程院院士(2017年);ACM A. M. 图灵奖(与D. Patterson共同获得),2017年。截至2018年,至少获得11个荣誉博士学位。

JOHN L HENNESSY DL作者简介链接
美国 - 2017年
嘉奖
由于开创了一种系统的、定量的计算机架构设计和评估方法,对微处理器行业产生了持久的影响。

短篇注释
书目
亚马逊图灵奖
讲座视频
研究
题材
John L. Hennessy,1952年出生,在纽约长岛北岸的亨廷顿长大。他的母亲在退休前是一名教师,抚养六个孩子;他的父亲是一名电气工程师。他在高中时是一个工匠,他的自动井字游戏机获得了科学展奖。这给他高中毕业舞会舞伴的母亲Andrea Berti留下了深刻印象,她是他在当地King Kullen杂货店的货架上工作时认识的女孩。他进入费城附近的维拉诺瓦大学学习,获得了电子工程学士学位(1973年)。为了读研究生,他回到长岛,在石溪大学(当时是纽约州立大学石溪分校)就读,1974年与安德里亚结婚,并获得了计算机科学的硕士(1975年)和博士(1977年)学位。

1977年9月,轩尼诗成为斯坦福大学的助理教授,几乎在他整个职业生涯中都是如此。在他获得第一个重大荣誉,即1983年维拉诺瓦大学颁发的约翰-J-盖伦纪念奖时,他成为斯坦福大学的副教授。1986年,他成为Willard和Inez Kerr Bell捐赠讲座的首任持有人。

他的工作主要集中在计算机结构方面。1980年,微型计算机的复杂性迅速提高,挑战了微型计算机的能力。普遍的看法是,强大的处理器需要非常大、非常丰富的指令集。正如Hennessy在他的图灵奖演讲中所观察到的,"微型计算机是在一些疯狂的事情上竞争,比如我的新指令可以做这种事情......而不是说这里有一组标准的基准,我的机器比你的机器快...."[1]

轩尼诗与伯克利大学教授大卫-帕特森(David Patterson)一起,通过挑战这种思维方式,在减少指令集计算机架构(RISC)方面赢得了名声。他们第一次见面是在1980年的一次微处理器会议上,当时他们各自提出了类似的微编码概念。Hennessy回忆说:"就像Dave在伯克利一样,我们的研究生班从一块白板开始,那是一种头脑风暴班。我们有一个独特的视角。人们完全忽略了基本的性能影响。这从一开始就是一个效率的争论....。我们都建立了我们的设计原型,我们可以看到其优势是很明显的。这些是由研究生建造的学术原型。"

在IBM的约翰-科克的原始RISC工作的基础上,1983年,轩尼诗的斯坦福团队开发了一个名为MIPS(无互锁管道阶段的微处理器)的原型芯片。第一个MIPS芯片使用了25,000个晶体管,运行的时钟速度比类似的伯克利芯片RISC-2(40,760个晶体管)略快。[2] 为了推进这项技术并使其商业化,他在1984年从斯坦福大学休假期间共同创立了MIPS计算机系统公司。他担任了八年的首席科学家,又担任了六年的首席建筑师。MIPS后来被Silicon Graphics收购,其处理器与James Clark在斯坦福大学开发的定制图形相结合,为1980年代末和1990年代好莱坞所依赖的高性能图形工作站提供动力。

帕特森回忆说。"有这样一个显著的时间点,很明显,在伯克利或斯坦福的少数研究生可以建立一个微处理器,可以说比工业界可以建立的更好--更快、更便宜、更有效....。RISC是非常有争议的,它是异端......约翰和我站在RISC一边,而所有其他人都站在CISC一边.... 我们很难说服人们相信这一点"。[3]

当其他人争论Hennessy和Patterson的RISC变体的相对优点时,他们认识到更大的竞争是体现在他们两个芯片中的RISC思想与当时从大型机到个人电脑的整个行业使用的CISC(复杂指令集计算)架构之间的竞争。两人开始合作,为设计更快的、更低的功率和更低的复杂度的微处理器创造了一个系统化的量化方法,共同撰写了两本书,成为该学科的标志性教科书。第一本是《计算机结构。现在是第六版,为几代建筑师确立了持久的原则。[4]

帕特森在他与轩尼诗共同发表的图灵演讲中量化了这项工作的影响。"我们在英特尔的同事......有伟大的技术....。他们每年的芯片数量达到了3.5亿个,不仅主导了台式机,而且还主导了服务器....。但是,从2007年的iPhone开始的后PC时代完全改变了一切......对面积和能源的重视程度不亚于性能。去年,有超过200亿的芯片装有32位处理器。[英特尔兼容]芯片在2011年达到顶峰,个人电脑的销量下降,而云端只有1000万个芯片,所以今天99%的处理器都是RISC"。[5]

Hennessy在斯坦福大学的职业生涯使他从研究转向行政领导。在1994年成为系主任的五年内,他被任命为教务长,与他的前同事吉姆-克拉克(Silicon Graphics的创始人)合作,安排了一笔创纪录的捐款来创建一个生物工程和科学中心。克拉克在谈到亨尼西时说 "最持久的印象是他对学生有多好,他有多努力工作,他对我的项目有多大帮助"。[6] 又过了一年,他在五百名候选人中脱颖而出,成为斯坦福大学的校长,这得益于他与硅谷高科技产业的特殊关系。他共同创立了Atheros以及MIPS,他在思科系统公司董事会任职多年,随后又在谷歌董事会任职,2016年他成为谷歌母公司Alphabet的董事长。在他的领导下,斯坦福大学的筹款带来了130亿美元,"[7]包括2007-2011年的五年活动,62.3亿美元,比之前任何大学的记录多60%。

在担任校长的16年中,亨内西重塑了斯坦福大学的建筑、校园、研究状况和财政资源。斯坦福杂志》(Stanford Magazine)上一篇充满赞赏的文章对他任期内的成就进行了分类。"70个建筑项目",校园文化转变为 "对跨学科合作的深刻承诺",以及 "灵巧和果断地处理 "重大经济衰退的挑战。也许最重要的,也是令许多人惊讶的是,轩尼诗对学生、对跨学科研究、对人文科学和艺术的奉献。轩尼诗推动了世界一流的表演和展览空间,借鉴了伊扎克-帕尔曼的一句话:"总统先生,斯坦福是一所伟大的大学,但你们的表演设施很糟糕。" 轩尼诗称这一抱怨是 "对一个总统的礼物,因为有一个专家的故事我可以重复"。[9] 自从2016年卸任校长以来,他一直是奈特-亨尼西学者项目的首任主任。

恰当的是,对于这两位在20世纪80年代向计算机机构挑战的RISC冠军来说,Hennessy和Patterson回到了他们的初恋--计算架构,因为他们正在品味他们共同被选为2017年ACM图灵奖得主。他们的图灵演讲挑战了这样一种观点,即潜在的处理器性能几乎没有像前几十年那样的巨大改进空间。事实并非如此。"像特定领域的硬件、增强的安全性、开放的指令集和敏捷的芯片开发等创新 "将使目前的系统吞吐量增加 "几十倍、几百倍、几千倍--高达62000倍"。他们的听众一如既往地认真倾听。[10] 。

Hennessy获得了许多地区、国家和国际奖项,外加11个荣誉博士学位。他的计算架构奖项包括IEEE(1991年)、美国艺术与科学学院(1995年)、ACM(1997年)和英国皇家工程院(2017年)的院士。他在2001年获得了西摩-克雷计算机工程奖,他在2012年获得了IEEE的最高荣誉--荣誉勋章,"因为他开创了RISC处理器架构,并在计算机工程和高等教育方面发挥了领导作用"。

Hennessy和Patterson获得了许多联合奖项,包括John von Neumann奖章(IEEE,2000年),2001年Eckert-Mauchly ACM/IEEE奖;2007年计算机历史博物馆的研究员,以及2017年ACM图灵奖。

作者。Charles H. House

[1] Hennessy, John L. and David A. Patterson, "A new golden age for computer architecture: domain-specific hardware/software co-design, enhanced security, open instruction sets, and agile chip development," 2017 ACM A.M.Turing Award lecture, 45th ISCA(International Symposium of Computer Architecture), Los Angeles, June 4, 2018 https://www.acm.org/hennessy-patterson-turing-lecture

[2] Hennessy, John L.; Forest Baskett; et al, "MIPS, A Microprocessor Architecture," ACM SIGMICRO Newsletter, 13:4; 1983

[3] Patterson, David A., "A New Golden Age for Computer Architecture: 历史、挑战和机遇》,加州大学伯克利分校ACM图灵奖得主座谈会讲座,2018年10月10日;https://eecs.berkeley.edu/turing-colloquium/schedule/patterson

[4] Hennessy, J. L. 和 Patterson, D. A. Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach. 1990. 摩根考夫曼出版社,公司。圣马特奥,加利福尼亚州。第二版,1995,第三版,2002。第四版,2007,第五版,2011,第六版,2018。还有Patterson, D.A.和Hennessy, J.L., 计算机组织和设计。The Hardware/Software Interface. 1993. 圣马特奥,加利福尼亚州。Morgan Kaufmann出版社。第二版,1998年,第三版2005年。

[5] Hennessy和Patterson,2017年ACM A.M.图灵奖讲座,同上。

[6] Swanson, Doug, "Favorite Son," Stanford Magazine, May-June 2000; https://stanfordmag.org/contents/favorite-son

[7] Antonucci, Mike, "Where he took us," Stanford Magazine, May-June 2016; https://stanfordmag.org/contents/where-he-took-us

[8] 凯利,凯文,"斯坦福大学在五年的活动中筹集了62亿美元,"《内部高等教育》,2012年2月8日;http://www.insidehighered.com/qu ... -five-year-campaign

[9] Antonucci, Mike, "Where he took us," op. cit.

[10] Hennessy和Patterson,2017年ACM A.M.图灵奖讲座,同上。还有Hennessy, John L. 和David A. Patterson, "A New Golden Age for Computer Architecture," Communications of the ACM (62:2) February 2019, pp.


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