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2016 蒂姆-伯纳斯-李爵士

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Sir Tim Berners-Lee
Birth: 8 June, 1955.

Education: Bachelor’s degree in Physics (Queen’s College, Oxford, 1976).

Experience: Principal Engineer (Plessy, 1976-78), Programmer (D.G. Nash, 1978-80), Contractor (CERN, 1980), Technical manager (Image Computer Systems, 1981-1984), Technical staff (CERN, 1986-1994), Professor (MIT, 1994-Present). 3Com Founders Chair since 1999). Director & Founder of: The World Wide Web Consortium (1994-present) and World Wide Web Foundation (2008-present). Secondary appointments as Professor at Southampton University (2004-present); Professor at Oxford University in Computer Science (2016-Present).

Honors and Awards (selected): ACM Software System Award (1992); Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society (1995); Fellow of the Royal Society (2001), Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2001), Royal Society of Arts Albert Medal (2002), Japan Prize (2002), Computer History Museum Fellow (2003); Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE); Order of Merit (2007); Draper Prize (2007); Fellow of the IEEE (2008); UNESCO Niels Bohr Gold Medal (2010), Queen Elizabeth II Prize for Engineering (2013); ACM A.M. Turing Award (2016). 19 honorary doctorates as of 2014.

SIR TIM BERNERS-LEE DL Author Profile link
United Kingdom – 2016
CITATION
For inventing the World Wide Web, the first web browser, and the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale.

SHORT ANNOTATED
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ACM TURING AWARD
LECTURE VIDEO
RESEARCH
SUBJECTS
ADDITIONAL
MATERIALS
Tim Berners-Lee grew up in London. Both of his parents (Mary Lee Woods and Conway Berners-Lee) were mathematicians, who had worked on the Ferranti Mark 1, a pioneering effort to commercialize the early Manchester computer. He inherited their interests, playing with electronics as a boy, but choosing physics for his university studies. After earning a degree from Queen’s College, Oxford in 1976 he worked on programming problems at several companies, before joining the European physics lab CERN in 1984. His initial job was in the data acquisition and control group, working to capture and process experimental data.

Inventing the Web

CERN’s business was particle smashing, not computer science, but its computing needs were formidable and it employed a large technical staff. Its massive internal network was connected to the Internet. In March 1989 Berners-Lee began to circulate a document headed “Information Management: A Proposal,” which proposed an Internet-based hypertext publishing system. This, he argued, would help CERN manage the huge collections of documents, code, and reports produced by its thousands of workers, many of them temporary visitors.

Berners-Lee later said that he had been dreaming of a networked hypertext system since a short spell consulting at CERN in 1980. Ted Nelson, who coined the phrase “hypertext” back in the 1960s, had imagined an online platform to replace conventional publishers. Authors could create links between documents, and readers would follow them from one document to another. By the late-1980s hypertext was flourishing as a research area, but in practice was used only in closed systems, such as the Microsoft Windows help system and the Macintosh Hypercard electronic document platform.

Mike Sendall, Berners-Lee’s manager, wrote “vague but exciting” on his copy of the proposal. In May 1990, he authorized Berners-Lee to spend some time on his idea, justifying this as a test of the widely hyped NeXT workstation. This was a high-end personal computer with a novel Unix-based operating system that optimized the rapid implementation of graphical applications. Berners-Lee spent the first few months working out specifications attempting to interest existing hypertext software companies in his ideas. By October 1990, he had begun to code prototype Web browser and server software, finishing in December. On 6, August, 1991, after tests and further development inside CERN, he used the Internet to announce the new “World Wide Web” and to distribute the new software.

Elements of the Web

The World Wide Web was ambitious in some ways, as its name reflects, but cautious in others. Berners-Lee’s initial support from CERN did not consist of much more than a temporary release from his other duties. So he leveraged existing technologies and standards everywhere in the design of the WWW. He remembers CERN as “chronically short of manpower for the huge challenges it had taken on.” There was no team of staff coders standing by to implement any grand plans he might come up with.

The Web, like most of the Internet during this era, was intimately tied in with the Unix operating system (for which Dennis M. Ritchie and Ken Thompson won the 1983 Turing Award). For example, the first Web server (and most since) have run as background processes on Unix-derived operating systems. URLs use Unix conventions to specify file paths within a website. To develop his prototype software, Berners-Lee used the NeXT workstation. More fundamentally, Berners-Lee’s whole approach reflected the distinctive Unix philosophy of building new system capabilities by recombining existing tools.

The Web also followed the Internet philosophy of achieving compatibility through communications protocols rather than standard code, hardware, or operating systems. His specifications for the new system led to three new Internet standards.

Web pages displayed text. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) specified the way text for a Web page should be tagged, for example as a hyperlink, ordinary paragraph, or level 2 heading. It was an application of the existing SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) markup language definition standard.

HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) specified the interactions through which Web browsers could request and receive HTML pages from Web servers. HTML was, in computer science terms, stateless – users did not log into websites and each request for a Web page or other file was treated separately. This made it a file transfer protocol, which was easy to design and implement because existing Internet standards and software, most importantly TCP/IP (for which Vinton Cerf and Robert E. Kahn won the 2004 Turing award), provided the infrastructure needed to pipe data across the network from one program to another. Berners-Lee later called this use of Internet protocols “politically incorrect” as European officials at the time were supporting a transition to the rival ISO network protocols. A few years later it was the success of the Web that put the final nail in their coffin.

Consider a Web address like http://amturing.acm.org/award_winners/berners-lee_8087960.cfm. This is a URL or Uniform Resource Locator (Berners-Lee originally called this a Universal Resource Identifier). The “amturing.acm.org” part identified the computer where the resource was found. This was nothing new – Internet sites had been using this Domain Name System since the mid-1980s. The novelty was the “http://” which told Web browsers, and users, to expect a Web server. Information after the first single “/” identified which page on the host computer was being requested. Berners-Lee also specified URL formats for existing Internet resources, including file servers, gopher servers (an earlier kind of Internet hypertext system), and telnet hosts for terminal connections. In 1994, Berners-Lee wrote that “The fact that it is easy to address an object anywhere in the Internet is essential for the system to scale, and for the information space to be independent of the network and server topology.”

The URL was the simplest of the three inventions, but was crucial to the early spread of the Web because it solved the “chicken and egg” problem facing any new communications system. Why set up a Web page when almost nobody has a Web browser? Why run a Web browser when almost nobody has set up a Web server to visit? The URL system made Web browsers a convenient way to access existing resources, cataloged on Web pages. In 1992, the Whole Internet Catalog and User’s Guide stated that “the World Wide Web hasn’t really been exploited yet… Hypertext is used primarily as a way of organizing resources that already exist.”

The Web Takes Off

CERN found some resources to support the further development of the Web – about 20 person years of work in total, mostly from interns. More importantly, it made it clear that others were free to use the new standards and prototype code to develop new and better software. Robert Cailliau, of the Office Computing Systems group, played an important role as a champion of the project within CERN. In 1991 CERN produced a simple text-based browser that could easily be accessed over the Internet and a Macintosh browser, essential to the initial spread of the Web as NeXT workstations remained very rare.

Over the next few years others implemented faster and more robust browsers with new features such as graphics in pages, browser history, and forward and back buttons. Mosaic, released in 1993 by the National Center for Supercomputer Applications of the University of Illinois, brought the Web to millions of users. In April, 1994 CERN, which was still trying to maintain a comprehensive list of Web servers, cataloged 829 in its “Geographical Registry.”

Berners-Lee later attributed his success largely to “being in the right place at the right time.” He succeeded where larger and better funded teams had failed, setting the foundation for a global hypertext system that quickly became a universal infrastructure for online communication and the foundation for many new industries. Yet the ACM’s 1991 Hypertext conference had rejected Berners-Lee’s paper describing the World Wide Web. From a research viewpoint, the Web seemed to sidestep many thorny research problems related to capabilities that Ted Nelson thought essential for a public hypertext publication system. If a Web page was moved, then links pointing to it stopped working. If the target page was changed, then it might no longer hold the content the link promised. Links went only one way – one couldn’t see which other pages linked to a document. There was no central, searchable index of websites and their content. Neither did the Web itself provide any way for publishers to get paid when people read their work.

Berners-Lee had only a few months at his disposal, which may have been a hidden blessing: Nelson worked for decades without coming close to finishing his system. Rather than attack intractable problems, Berners-Lee used proven technologies as the building blocks of a system intended to be powerful and immediately useful rather than perfect.

The Web’s reliance on existing technologies was appealing to early users and eased deployment – setting up a Web server on a computer already connected to the Internet just involved downloading and installing a small program. This technological minimalism made the Web easy to scale, with no indexing system or central database to overload. After the Web took off, whole new industries emerged to fill in some of the missing capabilities needed for large scale and commercial use, eventually leading, for example, to the rise of Google as the dominant provider of Internet search.

One crucial feature that Berners-Lee built into his prototype Web software was left out of its successors. His browser allowed users to edit pages, and save the changes back on the server. His 1994 article in Communications of the ACM noted that “The Web does not yet meet its design goal of being a pool of knowledge that is as easy to update as to read.” Editing capabilities were eventually added in other ways – first through separate HTML editing software, and later with the widespread adoption of content management systems where the software used to edit Web pages is itself accessed through a Web browser.



A screenshot of Berners-Lee’s Web browser software running on his NeXT computer. Note the Edit menu to allow changes, and the Style menu which put decisions over fonts and other display details in the hands of the reader rather than Webpage creators. Since 2014 this computer has been exhibited at the Science Museum in London.

Berners-Lee feels that his original design decisions have held up well, with one exception: the “//” in URLs which make addresses longer and harder to type without adding any additional information. “I have to say that now I regret that the syntax is so clumsy” he wrote in 2009.[1]

Standardizing the Web

Mosaic’s successor, the commercial browser Netscape, was used by hundreds of millions and kickstarted the “.com” frenzy for new Internet stocks. By 2000 there were an estimated 17 million websites online, used for commercial transactions such as online shopping and banking as well as document display. In the process, HTML was quickly given many clunky and incompatible extensions so that Web pages could be coded for things like font styles and page layout rather than its original focus on document structure.

In 1994 Berners-Lee left CERN for a faculty job at MIT. This let him establish the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), to standardize HTML and other, newer, elements of the Web. Berners-Lee had been frustrated in 1992 in an initial attempt to work with the Internet Engineering Task Force, the group that developed and standardized other Internet protocols. The consortium followed a different model, using corporate memberships to support the work of paid staff members. With its guidance the Web has remained open during its growth, so that users can choose their preferred Web browser while still accessing the full range of functionality found on modern websites. It also played a crucial role in adoption of the XML data description language. As of 2017, his primary appointment remains at MIT where he holds the Founders Chair in the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and continues to direct W3C.

The Semantic Web

Since the late 1990s Berners-Lee’s primary focus has been on trying to get Web publishers and technology companies to add a set of capabilities he called the “Semantic Web.” Berners-Lee defined his idea as follows: “The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation."

Document metadata was largely left off the original Web, in contrast to traditional online publishing systems, which made it hard for search engines to determine basic information such as the date on which an article was written or the person who wrote it. The Semantic Web initiative covered a hierarchy of technologies and standards that would let the creators of Web pages tag them to make their conceptual structure explicit, not just for information retrieval but also for machine reasoning.

Legacy and Recognition

The success of the Web drove a massive expansion in Internet access and infrastructure – indeed most Internet users of the late-1990s experienced the Internet primarily through the Web and did not clearly separate the two. Berners-Lee has been widely honored for this work, winning a remarkable array of international prizes. Sir Tim, as he been known since the Queen knighted him in 2004, has been recognized as one of the public faces of British science and technology. In 2012 he appeared with a NeXT computer during the elaborate opening ceremony of the London Olympic Games.

He has been increasingly willing to use this public influence to impact the ways in which governments and companies are shaping the Web. In 2009 he set up the World Wide Web Foundation, which lobbies for “digital equality” and produces rankings of Web freedom around the world. More recently, Berners-Lee has championed protection for personal data, criticized the increasing dominance of proprietary social media platforms, and bemoaned the prevalence of fake news online.

Author: Thomas Haigh

[1] https://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/FAQ.html#etc




蒂姆-伯纳斯-李爵士
出生:1955年6月8日。

教育经历。物理学学士学位(牛津大学皇后学院,1976年)。

经验:首席工程师(普莱西,1976-78),程序员(D.G.G: 首席工程师(普莱西,1976-78),程序员(D.G. Nash,1978-80),承包商(CERN,1980),技术经理(图像计算机系统,1981-1984),技术人员(CERN,1986-1994),教授(MIT,1994-至今)。自1999年起担任3Com公司创始人主席)。主任和创始人。万维网联盟(1994年至今)和万维网基金会(2008年至今)。次要任命为南安普顿大学教授(2004年至今);牛津大学计算机科学教授(2016年至今)。

荣誉和奖项(部分)。ACM软件系统奖(1992年);英国计算机学会杰出会员(1995年);英国皇家学会会员(2001年),美国艺术与科学学院会员(2001年),英国皇家艺术学会阿尔伯特奖章(2002年),日本奖(2002年),计算机历史博物馆研究员(2003年)。大英帝国骑士勋章(KBE);荣誉勋章(2007);德雷珀奖(2007);IEEE会员(2008);联合国教科文组织尼尔斯-玻尔金奖(2010),伊丽莎白女王二世工程奖(2013);ACM A. M. 图灵奖(2016)。截至2014年,获得19个荣誉博士学位。

SIR TIM BERNERS-LEE DL作者简介链接
联合王国 - 2016年
荣誉称号
因发明了万维网、第一个网络浏览器,以及允许网络扩展的基本协议和算法。

简短注释
书目
亚马逊图灵奖
讲座视频
研究
主题
额外的
材料
蒂姆-伯纳斯-李在伦敦长大。他的父母(玛丽-李-伍兹和康威-伯纳斯-李)都是数学家,他们曾在费兰蒂-马克1号上工作,这是早期曼彻斯特计算机商业化的先驱。他继承了他们的兴趣,小时候玩电子产品,但在大学学习时选择了物理学。1976年在牛津大学皇后学院获得学位后,他在几家公司从事编程问题,然后于1984年加入欧洲物理实验室CERN。他最初的工作是在数据采集和控制组,致力于采集和处理实验数据。

发明网络

欧洲核子研究中心的业务是粉碎粒子,而不是计算机科学,但它的计算需求是巨大的,它雇用了大量技术人员。其庞大的内部网络与互联网相连。1989年3月,伯纳斯-李开始分发一份题为 "信息管理。建议 "的文件,其中提出了一个基于互联网的超文本出版系统。他认为,这将有助于欧洲核子研究中心管理由其数千名工人(其中许多是临时访客)产生的大量文件、代码和报告。

伯纳斯-李后来说,自从1980年在欧洲核子研究中心做短期咨询以来,他一直梦想着建立一个网络化的超文本系统。早在20世纪60年代就创造了 "超文本 "这一短语的泰德-纳尔逊,曾想象过一个在线平台来取代传统的出版商。作者可以在文件之间建立链接,而读者可以跟随他们从一个文件到另一个文件。到20世纪80年代末,超文本作为一个研究领域正在蓬勃发展,但在实践中只用于封闭系统,如微软的Windows帮助系统和Macintosh的Hypercard电子文档平台。

伯纳斯-李的经理Mike Sendall在他的提案副本上写着 "模糊但令人兴奋"。1990年5月,他授权伯纳斯-李在他的想法上花一些时间,理由是这是对被广泛炒作的NeXT工作站的一个测试。这是一台高端的个人电脑,有一个新颖的基于Unix的操作系统,优化了图形应用程序的快速实施。伯纳斯-李在最初的几个月里制定了规范,试图让现有的超文本软件公司对他的想法感兴趣。到1990年10月,他已经开始编写网络浏览器和服务器软件的原型,并在12月完成。1991年8月6日,在欧洲核子研究中心内进行测试和进一步开发后,他利用互联网宣布了新的 "万维网 "并发布了新的软件。

万维网的要素

万维网在某些方面是雄心勃勃的,正如其名称所反映的那样,但在其他方面却很谨慎。伯纳斯-李最初从欧洲核子研究中心获得的支持并不包括从他的其他职责中暂时抽身出来。因此,他在设计WWW的过程中到处利用现有的技术和标准。他记得欧洲核子研究中心 "长期缺乏人力来应对它所承担的巨大挑战"。没有一个员工编码团队随时准备实施他可能想出的任何宏伟计划。

网络和这个时代的大多数互联网一样,与Unix操作系统(丹尼斯-M-里奇和肯-汤普森因此获得了1983年的图灵奖)紧密相连。例如,第一个网络服务器(以及此后的大多数)都是在Unix衍生的操作系统上作为后台进程运行。URLs使用Unix惯例来指定一个网站内的文件路径。为了开发他的原型软件,Berners-Lee使用了NeXT工作站。更根本的是,Berners-Lee的整个方法反映了独特的Unix哲学,即通过重新组合现有的工具来建立新的系统能力。

网络也遵循了互联网的理念,即通过通信协议而不是标准代码、硬件或操作系统实现兼容性。他对新系统的规范导致了三个新的互联网标准。

网页显示文本。HTML(超文本标记语言)规定了网页文本的标记方式,例如,作为超链接、普通段落或二级标题。它是现有SGML(标准通用标记语言)标记语言定义标准的一种应用。

HTTP(超文本传输协议)规定了网络浏览器可以从网络服务器请求和接收HTML页面的交互方式。用计算机科学术语来说,HTML是无状态的--用户不登录网站,对网页或其他文件的每个请求都被单独处理。这使得它成为一个文件传输协议,很容易设计和实现,因为现有的互联网标准和软件,最重要的是TCP/IP(文顿-瑟夫和罗伯特-E-卡恩因此获得2004年图灵奖),提供了在网络上从一个程序到另一个程序的数据管道所需的基础设施。伯纳斯-李后来称这种互联网协议的使用是 "政治上不正确的",因为当时的欧洲官员正在支持向竞争对手ISO网络协议的过渡。几年后,是网络的成功给他们的棺材钉上了最后的钉子。

考虑一下像http://amturing.acm.org/award_winners/berners-lee_8087960.cfm 这样的网络地址。这是一个URL或统一资源定位器(Berners-Lee最初称它为通用资源识别器)。amturing.acm.org "这部分标识了找到资源的计算机。这并不是什么新鲜事--互联网网站自1980年代中期以来一直在使用这种域名系统。新颖之处在于 "http://",它告诉网络浏览器和用户,要有一个网络服务器。第一个单一的"/"后面的信息确定了正在请求主机上的哪个页面。伯纳斯-李还为现有的互联网资源指定了URL格式,包括文件服务器、gopher服务器(一种早期的互联网超文本系统)和终端连接的telnet主机。1994年,Berners-Lee写道:"在互联网的任何地方都可以很容易地对一个对象进行寻址,这对于系统的扩展以及信息空间独立于网络和服务器拓扑结构是至关重要的。"

URL是三项发明中最简单的,但对网络的早期传播至关重要,因为它解决了任何新通信系统面临的 "鸡和蛋 "问题。当几乎没有人拥有网络浏览器时,为什么要建立一个网页?当几乎没有人建立网络服务器来访问时,为什么还要运行网络浏览器?URL系统使网络浏览器成为访问现有资源的便捷方式,这些资源被编入网页。1992年,《整个互联网目录和用户指南》指出,"万维网还没有真正被利用......超文本主要被用作组织已经存在的资源的一种方式"。

网络起飞

欧洲核子研究中心找到了一些资源来支持网络的进一步发展--总共约20个人年的工作,大部分来自实习生。更重要的是,它明确表示其他人可以自由使用新的标准和原型代码来开发新的和更好的软件。办公室计算系统组的Robert Cailliau在欧洲核子研究中心内作为项目的支持者发挥了重要作用。1991年,CERN生产了一个简单的基于文本的浏览器,可以很容易地通过互联网和Macintosh浏览器访问,这对网络的最初传播至关重要,因为NeXT工作站仍然非常罕见。

在接下来的几年里,其他的浏览器实现了更快、更强大的功能,如页面中的图形、浏览器历史记录、前进和后退按钮等新功能。1993年,伊利诺伊大学国家超级计算机应用中心发布了Mosaic,将网络带给了数百万的用户。1994年4月,欧洲核子研究中心(CERN)仍在努力维持一个全面的网络服务器列表,在其 "地理注册表 "中列出了829个目录。

伯纳斯-李后来把他的成功主要归功于 "在正确的时间出现在正确的地点"。他在规模更大、资金更雄厚的团队失败的地方获得了成功,为全球超文本系统奠定了基础,并迅速成为在线通信的通用基础设施和许多新行业的基础。然而,ACM的1991年超文本会议拒绝了伯纳斯-李描述万维网的论文。从研究的角度来看,万维网似乎回避了许多棘手的研究问题,这些问题与Ted Nelson认为的公共超文本出版系统所必需的能力有关。如果一个网页被移动,那么指向它的链接就会停止工作。如果目标页面被改变了,那么它可能不再拥有链接所承诺的内容。链接只有一个方向--人们无法看到哪些其他网页链接到一个文件。没有中央的、可搜索的网站及其内容的索引。网络本身也没有提供任何方式让出版商在人们阅读他们的作品时获得报酬。

伯纳斯-李只有几个月的时间可以支配,这可能是一个隐藏的祝福。尼尔森工作了几十年,却没有接近完成他的系统。伯纳斯-李没有去解决难以解决的问题,而是用成熟的技术作为一个系统的构件,旨在使其强大和立即有用而不是完美。

网络对现有技术的依赖对早期的用户很有吸引力,而且便于部署--在已经连接到互联网的计算机上建立一个网络服务器,只需要下载和安装一个小程序。这种技术上的极简主义使网络易于扩展,没有索引系统或中央数据库会超载。在网络起飞之后,出现了全新的行业,以填补大规模和商业使用所需的一些缺失的功能,最终导致了谷歌的崛起,成为互联网搜索的主导供应商。

伯纳斯-李在他的网络软件原型中建立的一个关键功能被其后继者遗漏了。他的浏览器允许用户编辑网页,并将改动保存在服务器上。他在1994年发表在《ACM通讯》上的文章指出:"网络还没有达到其设计目标,即成为一个易于更新和阅读的知识库"。编辑功能最终以其他方式被添加进来--首先是通过独立的HTML编辑软件,后来随着内容管理系统的广泛采用,用于编辑网页的软件本身就可以通过网络浏览器访问。



伯纳斯-李在他的NeXT电脑上运行的网络浏览器软件的截图。注意允许修改的编辑菜单,以及将字体和其他显示细节的决定权交给读者而不是网页创建者的风格菜单。自2014年以来,这台电脑一直在伦敦的科学博物馆展出。

伯纳斯-李认为他最初的设计决定保持得很好,但有一个例外:URL中的"//",它使地址更长,更难输入,却没有增加任何额外信息。他在2009年写道:"我不得不说,现在我很遗憾,语法是如此的笨拙"。

网络的标准化

Mosaic的继任者,商业浏览器Netscape,被数以亿计的人使用,并掀起了".com "新互联网股票的狂潮。到2000年,估计有1700万个网站在线,用于商业交易,如网上购物和银行业务,以及文件显示。在这个过程中,HTML很快就被赋予了许多笨重和不兼容的扩展,以便网页可以为字体样式和页面布局等东西进行编码,而不是其最初的重点是文档结构。

1994年,伯纳斯-李离开欧洲核子研究中心,在麻省理工学院担任教职。这使他建立了万维网联盟(W3C),以规范HTML和其他较新的网络元素。伯纳斯-李在1992年与互联网工程任务组(Internet Engineering Task Force)合作的最初尝试受到了挫折,该小组负责开发和规范其他互联网协议。该联盟采用了一种不同的模式,利用企业会员资格来支持受薪工作人员的工作。在它的指导下,网络在其发展过程中保持了开放性,因此用户可以选择他们喜欢的网络浏览器,同时仍然可以访问现代网站上的全部功能。它还在采用XML数据描述语言方面发挥了关键作用。截至2017年,他的主要任命仍然在麻省理工学院,在那里他担任麻省理工学院计算机科学和人工智能实验室的创始人主席,并继续指导W3C。

语义网

自20世纪90年代末以来,伯纳斯-李的主要重点是试图让网络出版商和技术公司增加一套他称之为 "语义网 "的能力。伯纳斯-李将他的想法定义如下。"语义网是当前网络的延伸,其中信息被赋予了明确的含义,更好地使计算机和人能够合作工作。

与传统的在线出版系统相比,文档元数据在很大程度上被排除在最初的网络之外,这使得搜索引擎难以确定基本信息,例如一篇文章的写作日期或写作人。语义网倡议涵盖了一个技术和标准的层次,它可以让网页的创建者对其进行标记,使其概念结构明确,这不仅是为了信息检索,也是为了机器推理。

遗产和认可

网络的成功推动了互联网接入和基础设施的大规模扩展--事实上,90年代末的大多数互联网用户主要是通过网络来体验互联网的,并没有将两者明确分开。伯纳斯-李因为这项工作而获得了广泛的荣誉,赢得了一系列引人注目的国际奖项。蒂姆爵士,自2004年英国女王授予他爵位以来,一直被认为是英国科学和技术的公众形象之一。2012年,在伦敦奥运会精心设计的开幕式上,他带着一台NeXT电脑出现。

他越来越愿意利用这种公众影响力来影响政府和公司塑造网络的方式。2009年,他成立了万维网基金会,为 "数字平等 "进行游说,并对全世界的网络自由度进行排名。最近,伯纳斯-李倡导保护个人数据,批评专有社交媒体平台的日益主导地位,并对网上假新闻的盛行表示遗憾。

作者。托马斯-海格

[1] https://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/FAQ.html#etc
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