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2008 芭芭拉-利斯科夫

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发表于 2022-4-17 23:15:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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Barbara Liskov

PHOTOGRAPHS
BIRTH:
November 7, 1939, California.

EDUCATION:
BSc in Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley (1961); PhD in computer science, Stanford University (1968)

EXPERIENCE:
Mitre Corporation, (1968-1972); MIT (1972 onwards, 2001-2004 as Associate Department Head and later as Associate Provost)

HONORS AND AWARDS:
Member, National Academy of Engineering (1989); Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1992); Fellow, ACM 1(996); Society of Women Engineers Achievement Award (1996); IEEE John Von Neumann medal (2004); MIT Institute Professor (2008); ACM SIGPLAN Programming Languages Lifetime Achievement Award (2008); ACM SIGSOFT Impact Paper Award (2008); ACM A. M. Turing Award (2009); CMU Katayanagi Prize for Research Excellence in Computer Science (2011).
Honorary Doctorates: ETH, Zurich, Switzerland (2005); Northwestern University, Chicago (2011); University of Lugano, Switzerland (2011).


BARBARA LISKOV DL Author Profile link
United States – 2008
CITATION
For contributions to practical and theoretical foundations of programming language and system design, especially related to data abstraction, fault tolerance, and distributed computing.

SHORT ANNOTATED
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ACM TURING AWARD
LECTURE VIDEO
RESEARCH
SUBJECTS
ADDITIONAL
MATERIALS
VIDEO INTERVIEW
Barbara Liskov, née Barbara Jane Huberman, was born on November 7, 1939, in California. She earned her BA in mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley in 1961. Rather than go directly to graduate school, she took a job at the Mitre Corporation where she learned that she was a natural at computer programming. After a year at Mitre, she moved to Harvard to work on computer translation of human languages.

Returning to California to do graduate work at Stanford, she was given financial support in John McCarthy’s lab partly because her earlier work on natural language translation was in the general area of artificial intelligence. In 1968 she became one of the first women in the United States to be awarded a computer science PhD. Her thesis on chess end-games was supervised by John McCarthy.

After receiving her PhD, Barbara married Nathan Liskov and moved back to the Boston area to work at the Mitre Corporation in Bedford, MA on computer design and operating systems. Using an Interdata 3 computer that had the ability to change the instruction set via microcode, she created the “Venus Computer” tailored to supporting the construction of complex software. The Venus operating system was a small timesharing system for the Venus machine used to experiment with how different architectures helped or hindered this process. The Venus system supported 16 teletypes and each user was connected to a virtual machine so that major errors would not compromise the entire system, only the virtual machine for that user.

Liskov describes the influence of Algol on her partitioning of variable scope for the Venus operating system.       
In 1971, shortly after finishing her experiments with Venus and presenting a conference paper on the topic, Liskov was urged by another attendee to consider a position at MIT. She left Mitre and joined the MIT faculty as a professor in the Laboratory for Computer Science. Building on her experience at the Mitre Corporation, her research has focused on creating more reliable computer systems.

At MIT she led the design and implementation of the CLU programming language, which emphasized the notions of modular programming, data abstraction, and polymorphism. These concepts are a foundation of object-oriented programming used in modern computer languages such as Java and C#, although many other features of modern object oriented programming are missing from this early language.

Liskov describes her creation of the CLU programming language and explains some of its innovative features.       
Her MIT group also created the Argus language, which extended the ideas of CLU to ease implementation of programs distributed over a network, including support for nested transactions. An example of such a distributed program might be a network based banking system. Argus provided object abstractions called “guardians” that encapsulate related procedures. As an experimental language, Argus influenced others developers but was never widely adopted or used for deployed networked applications.

Liskov describes her introduction of the concept of “data abstraction.”       
Liskov's subsequent work has mainly been in the area of distributed systems, which use several computers connected by a network. Her research has covered many aspects of operating systems and computation, including important work on object-oriented database systems, garbage collection, caching, persistence, recovery, fault tolerance, security, decentralized information flow, modular upgrading of distributed systems, geographic routing, and practical Byzantine fault tolerance. Many of these, like Byzantine fault tolerance, deal with situations where a complex system fails in arbitrary ways. Liskov developed methods to allow correct operation even when some components are unreliable.

Liskov describes the Liskov Substitution Principle.       
With Jeannette Wing she developed a new notion of subtyping, known as the Liskov substitution principle. Her contributions have influenced advanced system developments and set a standard for clarity and usefulness.

Liskov is currently the Ford Professor of Engineering at MIT. She leads the Programming Methodology Group at MIT, with a current research focus in Byzantine fault tolerance and distributed computing. She became a full professor at MIT in 1980. She served as the Associate Head for Computer Science from 2001 to 2004, and in 2007 was appointed Associate Provost for Faculty Equity. In 2008, MIT named her an Institute Professor, the highest honor awarded to an MIT faculty member.

"Barbara is revered in the MIT community for her role as scholar, mentor and leader," said MIT President Susan Hockfield. "Her pioneering research has made her one of the world's leading
authorities on computer language and system design. In addition to her seminal scholarly contributions, Barbara has served MIT with great wisdom and judgment in several administrative roles, most recently as Associate Provost for Faculty Equity."

She has supervised the research programs of more than twenty PhD students and large numbers of MSc students.

Her son Moses Liskov was awarded a PhD in computer science by MIT in 2004, and is now a professor of computer science at the College of William and Mary.

Web sites
Professor Liskov's home page,
http://www.pmg.csail.mit.edu/~liskov/
Biography of Prof. Liskov by Prof. John Guttag, in a book about MIT's EECS department,
http://www.eecs.mit.edu/spotlights/liskov_jvg-bio.html
Article on Professor Liskov in Technology Review (MIT),
http://www.technologyreview.com/article/24108/page1/

Author: Tom van Vleck



芭芭拉-利斯科夫

照片
出生。
1939年11月7日,加利福尼亚。

教育:加州大学伯克利分校数学学士(1961年);斯坦福大学计算机科学博士(1968年)。
加州大学伯克利分校数学学士(1961);斯坦福大学计算机科学博士(1968)。

工作经历
Mitre公司,(1968-1972年);麻省理工学院(1972年起,2001-2004年担任系副主任,后担任副教务长)

荣誉和奖项。
国家工程院院士(1989年);美国艺术与科学学院院士(1992年);ACM 1(996)院士;女工程师协会成就奖(1996年);IEEE John Von Neumann奖章(2004年);麻省理工学院教授(2008年);ACM SIGPLAN编程语言终身成就奖(2008年);ACM SIGSOFT影响论文奖(2008年);ACM A. M. 图灵奖(2009年);CMU Katayanagi计算机科学卓越研究奖(2011年)。
荣誉博士。瑞士苏黎世联邦理工学院(2005);芝加哥西北大学(2011);瑞士卢加诺大学(2011)。


BARBARA LISKOV DL作者简介链接
美国 - 2008年
嘉奖
由于对编程语言和系统设计的实践和理论基础的贡献,特别是与数据抽象、容错和分布式计算有关的贡献。

短篇注释
书目
亚马逊图灵奖
讲座视频
研究
主题
额外的
材料
视频采访
芭芭拉-利斯科夫,又名芭芭拉-简-休伯曼,1939年11月7日出生在加利福尼亚。她于1961年在加州大学伯克利分校获得数学学士学位。她没有直接进入研究生院,而是在Mitre公司工作,在那里她了解到自己在计算机编程方面的天赋。在Mitre公司工作一年后,她转到哈佛大学,从事人类语言的计算机翻译工作。

回到加利福尼亚在斯坦福大学做研究生工作时,她在约翰-麦卡锡的实验室得到了财政支持,部分原因是她早期的自然语言翻译工作属于人工智能的一般领域。1968年,她成为美国第一批获得计算机科学博士学位的女性之一。她关于国际象棋终局的论文是由约翰-麦卡锡指导的。

获得博士学位后,芭芭拉与内森-利斯科夫结婚,并搬回波士顿地区,在马萨诸塞州贝德福德市的米特尔公司从事计算机设计和操作系统工作。她使用一台能够通过微代码改变指令集的Interdata 3计算机,创造了 "维纳斯计算机",专门用于支持复杂软件的构建。维纳斯操作系统是维纳斯机器的一个小型分时系统,用于实验不同的架构如何帮助或阻碍这一过程。维纳斯系统支持16台电传打字机,每个用户都连接到一个虚拟机上,这样重大的错误就不会影响整个系统,只影响该用户的虚拟机。

Liskov描述了Algol对她为维纳斯操作系统划分可变范围的影响。       
1971年,在完成了她对Venus的实验并发表了一篇关于该主题的会议论文后不久,Liskov被另一个与会者敦促考虑在麻省理工学院的一个职位。她离开了Mitre,加入了麻省理工学院,成为计算机科学实验室的一名教授。基于她在Mitre公司的经验,她的研究重点是创造更可靠的计算机系统。

在麻省理工学院,她领导了CLU编程语言的设计和实施,该语言强调模块化编程、数据抽象和多态性等概念。这些概念是现代计算机语言(如Java和C#)中使用的面向对象编程的基础,尽管现代面向对象编程的许多其他特征在这种早期语言中是缺失的。

Liskov描述了她对CLU编程语言的创造,并解释了它的一些创新特点。       
她所在的麻省理工学院小组还创造了Argus语言,该语言扩展了CLU的思想,使分布在网络上的程序的实现更加容易,包括对嵌套事务的支持。这种分布式程序的一个例子可能是一个基于网络的银行系统。Argus提供了被称为 "守护者 "的对象抽象,封装了相关程序。作为一种实验性语言,Argus影响了其他开发者,但从未被广泛采用或用于部署的网络化应用。

Liskov描述了她对 "数据抽象 "概念的介绍。       
Liskov随后的工作主要是在分布式系统领域,这些系统使用由网络连接的几台计算机。她的研究涵盖了操作系统和计算的许多方面,包括在面向对象的数据库系统、垃圾收集、缓存、持久性、恢复、容错、安全、分散的信息流、分布式系统的模块化升级、地理路由和实用的拜占庭容错方面的重要工作。其中许多,如拜占庭容错,处理的是复杂系统以任意方式失效的情况。Liskov开发了一些方法,即使在某些组件不可靠的情况下也能正确运行。

Liskov描述了Liskov替代原理。       
她与Jeannette Wing一起开发了一个新的子类型概念,称为Liskov替代原则。她的贡献影响了先进的系统发展,并为清晰性和实用性设定了标准。

利斯科夫目前是麻省理工学院的福特工程教授。她领导麻省理工学院的编程方法学小组,目前的研究重点是拜占庭容错和分布式计算。她于1980年成为麻省理工学院的正式教授。2001年至2004年,她担任计算机科学副主任,2007年被任命为教务长副主任,负责教师平等事务。2008年,麻省理工学院任命她为学院教授,这是授予麻省理工学院教职员工的最高荣誉。

"麻省理工学院院长苏珊-霍克菲尔德(Susan Hockfield)说:"芭芭拉因其作为学者、导师和领导者的角色而在麻省理工学院社区受到尊敬。"她的开创性研究使她成为世界上计算机语言和系统设计方面的主要权威之一。
她的开创性研究使她成为世界上计算机语言和系统设计方面的权威之一。除了她的开创性学术贡献外,芭芭拉还以极大的智慧和判断力在多个行政岗位上为麻省理工学院服务,最近的职务是负责教师平等的副教务长"。

她曾指导过20多名博士生和大量硕士生的研究项目。

她的儿子摩西-利斯科夫于2004年被麻省理工学院授予计算机科学博士学位,现在是威廉和玛丽学院的计算机科学教授。

网站
利斯科夫教授的主页。
http://www.pmg.csail.mit.edu/~liskov/
Liskov教授的传记,由John Guttag教授撰写,收录在一本关于麻省理工学院EECS系的书中。
http://www.eecs.mit.edu/spotlights/liskov_jvg-bio.html
技术评论》(MIT)中关于Liskov教授的文章。
http://www.technologyreview.com/article/24108/page1/

作者。汤姆-范-弗莱克
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