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2004 文顿-塞夫

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发表于 2022-4-17 22:55:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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Vinton Cerf

PHOTOGRAPHS
BIRTH:
Born 23 June 1943, New Haven, CT

EDUCATION:
B.S. in Mathematics, (Stanford University, 1965); M.S. in Computer Science, (University of California, Los Angeles, 1970); Ph.D. in Computer Science (University of California, Los Angeles, 1972).

EXPERIENCE:
IBM Systems engineer (1965-67); Assistant Professor, Stanford University (1972–1976); Program Manager, Information Processing Techniques Office, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (1976-82); Vice president of Digital Information Services, MCI (1982–1986); Vice President, Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) (1986-1994); Senior Vice President, MCI (1994-2005); Vice president and Chief Internet Evangelist, Google, (from 2005).

HONORS AND AWARDS:
Silver Medal of the International Telecommunications Union (1995); US National Medal of Technology (1997); IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal (1997); Marconi Award (1998); Fellow of the Computer History Museum (2000);Charles Stark Draper Prize (2001); ACM Turing Award (2004); US Presidential Medal of Freedom (2005); Japan Prize (2008); Harold Pender Award (2010); elected president of the ACM (2012-2014); Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering (2013); ?awarded Officer of the French Légion d'honneur (2014); Cerf has also been named a Fellow of the following organizations: IEEE, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), American Academy of Arts & Sciences (AAAS), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), British Computer Society, and National Academy of Engineering (NAE).



VINTON (“VINT”) GRAY CERF DL Author Profile link
United States – 2004
CITATION
With Robert E. Kahn, for pioneering work on internetworking, including the design and implementation of the Internet's basic communications protocols, TCP/IP, and for inspired leadership in networking.

SHORT ANNOTATED
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ACM TURING AWARD
LECTURE VIDEO
RESEARCH
SUBJECTS
ADDITIONAL
MATERIALS
Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn led the design and implementation of the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) that are the basis for the current internet. They formulated fundamental design principles of networking, specified TCP/IP to meet these requirements, prototyped TCP/IP, and coordinated several early TCP/IP implementations. Since then, they have continued to provide leadership in the networking research community and in the emerging industries of the internet and telecommunications.

Background

Vint Cerf was born 23 June 1943 in New Haven, CT. He suffered from a hearing impairment from an early age, and he later attributed some of his interest in computer networking to its promise as an alternative communications channel for the hearing impaired. Cerf received his B.S. in Mathematics from Stanford University in 1965, then worked for IBM for two years, where he contributed to Quicktran, a FORTRAN based time-sharing system. This whetted his interest in computer science, and he left IBM to study at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he earned his M.S. (1970) and Ph.D. (1972) in Computer Science.

As a graduate student at UCLA, Cerf became involved in the ARPANET through Leonard Kleinrock, an expert in queuing theory who had a contract to do performance analysis for the new network. As part of this role, UCLA was given one of the first four ARPANET nodes. Cerf became deeply involved in the ongoing discussion and development of the ARPANET host computer software (NCP) through the Network Working Group, whose informal, decentralized mode of operation would become the model for Internet protocol development and open software.

Joint work on the Internet
Cerf and Kahn first met when Kahn came to UCLA in 1969 to help test the nascent ARPANET. The two formed an effective working relationship to generate test data and predict and diagnose problems in the network.

In late 1972, Kahn joined the Information Processing Techniques Office (part of the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency – usually known as “IPTO”) as a program manager and initiated projects in network security, digital speech transmission, and packet radio. In 1973, building on a previous ARPA-funded project called Alohanet, Kahn initiated a ground-based packet-radio project, called PRNET, which started experimental operation in 1975. Kahn also began experimenting with using the Intelsat I satellite to link the Arpanet to sites in Britain and Norway (where ARPA conducted seismic monitoring to detect Soviet underground nuclear tests). In 1975 this effort grew into the Atlantic Packet Satellite Network (SATNET), an experimental transatlantic network operated in conjunction with the British Post Office and Norwegian Telecommunications Authority.

By 1973 Kahn was already thinking about connecting ARPA’s packet radio and satellite networks to the ARPANET, but he faced formidable challenges, since the three networks were technologically incompatible. ARPANET used point-to-point transmission, while the radio networks used broadcast; ARPANET tried to guarantee reliable transmission of packets, while PRNET did not; and SATNET had longer transmission delays because of the great distance the packets had to travel. Successfully connecting such diverse networks would require a new approach.

In the spring of 1973, Kahn approached Cerf with the idea of developing a system for interconnecting networks—what would eventually be called an “internet.” Kahn felt that his own knowledge of the problem of connecting dissimilar networks, combined with Cerf’s expertise in writing host software, would create a strong partnership. In addition, Kahn and Cerf demonstrated farsighted leadership by inviting networking experts from around the world to weigh in on the Internet design at a seminar in June 1973. This move not only led to more robust protocols, but also laid the groundwork for the global spread of the Internet.
Cerf and Kahn outlined the resulting Internet architecture in a seminal 1974 paper, A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication [2].

There were two key elements. First was a host protocol called the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which was intended to provide reliable, ordered, flow-controlled transmission of packets over the interlinked networks. Second was a set of gateways or routers that would sit between networks, passing traffic between them and handling inter-network addressing and routing. There was also a hierarchical address system, whereby packets were first sent by the gateways to a network address and then directed internally to a host address within that network. The Internet architecture was designed to make minimal demands on participating networks, to provide a seamless user experience, and to scale up gracefully, key features that would facilitate the Internet’s rapid expansion in the 1990s.

Cerf initially worked on developing the Internet protocols as an ARPA contractor at UCLA, then moved to IPTO as program manager for networking in 1976, staying at the agency until 1982. In 1978 he collaborated with Jon Postel and Danny Cohen, both at the University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute, to reformulate TCP as a set of two protocols: a host protocol (TCP) and a separate internetwork protocol (IP). IP would be a stripped-down protocol for passing packets within or between networks; it would run on both hosts and gateways, while the more complex TCP would run only on hosts and provide reliable end-to-end service. The new TCP/IP architecture, described in Cerf’s 1980 article “Protocols for Interconnected Packet Networks” [3], simplified the operation of internet gateways and helped increase the number and diversity of the networks connected to the Internet.

Cerf and Kahn oversaw the implementation of TCP and the experimental connection of ARPANET, PRNET and SATNET in 1977; this became the first incarnation of the Internet. Kahn became Director of IPTO in 1979, serving until 1985. He helped guide the changeover of ARPANET sites from the original NCP protocol to TCP/IP in 1983. Also in 1983, Kahn initiated ARPA’s Strategic Computing Initiative, a billion-dollar research program that included chip design, parallel computer architectures, and artificial intelligence.

Later activities

Cerf left ARPA in 1982 to become Vice president of Digital Information Services at MCI, where he created MCI Mail. Cerf arranged for MCI Mail to become the first commercial email service to use the Internet in 1989. Cerf later returned to MCI as Senior Vice President from 1994-2005.

In 1986 Cerf joined Kahn as Vice President of the newly formed Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), where he remains Chairman, CEO, and President. In 1991, recognizing the need for a neutral forum for Internet standards development, Cerf and Kahn founded the Internet Society (ISOC), an international nonprofit organization. ISOC provided an institutional home for the Internet Engineering Task Force, which sets technical standards for the Internet, and eventually expanded into policy and educational activities. Cerf served as President of ISOC from 1992 until 1995. He also served as chairman of the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), which coordinates the domain name system among other functions, from 2000-2007. In 2005 Cerf was hired by Google as Vice president and Chief Internet Evangelist.

Author: Janet Abbate



文顿-塞夫

照片
出生地
1943年6月23日出生在康涅狄格州纽黑文市

学历
数学学士(斯坦福大学,1965);计算机科学硕士(加州大学洛杉矶分校,1970);计算机科学博士(加州大学洛杉矶分校,1972)。

工作经验。
IBM系统工程师(1965-67);斯坦福大学助理教授(1972-1976);国防高级研究计划局(DARPA)信息处理技术办公室项目经理(1976-82);MCI数字信息服务副总裁(1982-1986);国家研究计划公司(CNRI)副总裁(1986-1994);MCI高级副总裁(1994-2005);谷歌副总裁和首席互联网布道者(2005年起)。

荣誉和奖项。
国际电信联盟银质奖章(1995年);美国国家技术奖章(1997年);IEEE亚历山大-格雷厄姆-贝尔奖章(1997年);马可尼奖(1998年);计算机历史博物馆研究员(2000年);查尔斯-斯塔克-德雷珀奖(2001年);ACM图灵奖(2004年);美国总统自由奖(2005年);日本奖(2008年);哈罗德-彭德奖(2010年);当选ACM主席(2012-2014);伊丽莎白女王工程奖(2013);? 被授予法国荣誉军团军官勋章(2014年);Cerf还被任命为以下组织的会员。IEEE、计算机协会(ACM)、美国艺术与科学学院(AAAS)、美国科学促进会(AAAS)、英国计算机协会和国家工程院(NAE)。



VINTON ("VINT") GRAY CERF DL作者简介链接
美国 - 2004年
参考文献
与Robert E. Kahn一起,在国际网络方面做出了开创性的工作,包括设计和实现了互联网的基本通信协议TCP/IP,并在网络方面做出了鼓舞人心的领导。

简短注释
书目
亚马逊图灵奖
讲座视频
研究成果
主题
额外的
材料
文顿-G-瑟夫和罗伯特-E-卡恩领导了传输控制协议和互联网协议(TCP/IP)的设计和实施,是目前互联网的基础。他们制定了网络的基本设计原则,指定了TCP/IP以满足这些要求,制作了TCP/IP原型,并协调了几个早期的TCP/IP实施。从那时起,他们继续在网络研究界以及互联网和电信的新兴产业中发挥领导作用。

背景介绍

文特-瑟夫于1943年6月23日出生在康涅狄格州的纽黑文。他从小就有听力障碍,后来他把对计算机网络的兴趣归结为它有可能成为听力障碍者的替代通信渠道。Cerf于1965年在斯坦福大学获得数学学士学位,然后在IBM工作了两年,在那里他对Quicktran做出了贡献,这是一个基于FORTRAN的时间共享系统。这激发了他对计算机科学的兴趣,于是他离开IBM到加州大学洛杉矶分校学习,在那里他获得了计算机科学的硕士学位(1970年)和博士学位(1972年)。

作为加州大学洛杉矶分校的研究生,瑟夫通过Leonard Kleinrock参与了ARPANET,他是排队理论方面的专家,有一份为新网络做性能分析的合同。作为这项工作的一部分,加州大学洛杉矶分校获得了首批四个ARPANET节点中的一个。Cerf通过网络工作组深入参与了ARPANET主机软件(NCP)的持续讨论和开发,其非正式的、分散的运作模式将成为互联网协议开发和开放软件的模式。

关于互联网的联合工作
Cerf和Kahn第一次见面是在1969年Kahn来到加州大学洛杉矶分校,帮助测试新生的ARPANET。两人形成了一种有效的工作关系,以产生测试数据,预测和诊断网络中的问题。

1972年底,卡恩加入了信息处理技术办公室(美国国防部高级研究计划局的一部分,通常被称为 "IPTO"),担任项目经理,并启动了网络安全、数字语音传输和分组无线电等项目。1973年,在之前ARPA资助的名为Alohanet的项目基础上,卡恩启动了一个名为PRNET的地面分组无线电项目,该项目于1975年开始实验性运行。卡恩还开始试验使用Intelsat I卫星将Arpanet连接到英国和挪威的站点(ARPA在那里进行地震监测以探测苏联的地下核试验)。1975年,这一努力发展成为大西洋分组卫星网络(SATNET),这是一个与英国邮政局和挪威电信局共同运营的实验性跨大西洋网络。

到1973年,卡恩已经在考虑将ARPA的分组无线电和卫星网络连接到ARPANET,但他面临着巨大的挑战,因为这三个网络在技术上是不兼容的。ARPANET使用点对点传输,而无线电网络使用广播;ARPANET试图保证数据包的可靠传输,而PRNET则没有;SATNET由于数据包必须经过很远的距离,所以传输延迟较长。成功地连接这些不同的网络将需要一种新的方法。

1973年春天,卡恩向瑟夫提出了开发一个网络互连系统的想法--最终被称为 "互联网"。卡恩认为,他自己对连接不同网络问题的了解,加上瑟夫在编写主机软件方面的专长,将创造一个强大的伙伴关系。此外,卡恩和瑟夫在1973年6月的一次研讨会上邀请来自世界各地的网络专家对互联网的设计进行评估,从而显示出有远见的领导力。此举不仅导致了更强大的协议,而且为互联网的全球传播奠定了基础。
Cerf和Kahn在1974年的一篇开创性的论文《分组网络互通协议》中概述了由此产生的互联网架构[2]。

其中有两个关键因素。首先是一个被称为传输控制协议(TCP)的主机协议,其目的是在相互连接的网络上提供可靠、有序、流量控制的数据包传输。其次是一组网关或路由器,它们位于网络之间,在它们之间传递信息,处理网络间的寻址和路由。还有一个分层的地址系统,即数据包首先由网关发送到一个网络地址,然后在内部指向该网络中的一个主机地址。互联网架构的设计是为了对参与的网络提出最小的要求,提供无缝的用户体验,并能优雅地扩大规模,这些关键特征将促进互联网在20世纪90年代的快速扩张。

Cerf最初作为加州大学洛杉矶分校的ARPA承包商从事互联网协议的开发工作,然后在1976年转到IPTO担任网络项目经理,在该机构工作到1982年。1978年,他与南加州大学信息科学研究所的Jon Postel和Danny Cohen合作,将TCP重新表述为一套两个协议:一个主机协议(TCP)和一个独立的网络协议(IP)。IP将是一个简化的协议,用于在网络内或网络之间传递数据包;它将在主机和网关上运行,而更复杂的TCP将只在主机上运行,并提供可靠的端到端服务。Cerf在1980年的文章《互连分组网络的协议》[3]中描述了新的TCP/IP架构,它简化了互联网网关的操作,有助于增加连接到互联网的网络的数量和多样性。

Cerf和Kahn监督了TCP的实施以及1977年ARPANET、PRNET和SATNET的实验性连接;这成为互联网的第一个化身。卡恩于1979年成为IPTO的主任,任职至1985年。1983年,他帮助指导ARPANET站点从最初的NCP协议转变为TCP/IP。也是在1983年,卡恩发起了ARPA的战略计算计划,这是一个价值10亿美元的研究计划,包括芯片设计、并行计算机架构和人工智能。

后来的活动

Cerf于1982年离开ARPA,成为MCI数字信息服务的副总裁,在那里他创建了MCI邮件。Cerf安排MCI邮件在1989年成为第一个使用互联网的商业电子邮件服务。Cerf后来在1994年至2005年期间回到MCI担任高级副总裁。

1986年,瑟夫加入卡恩,担任新成立的国家研究计划公司(CNRI)的副总裁,他至今仍是该公司的主席、首席执行官和总裁。1991年,认识到需要一个中立的互联网标准开发论坛,瑟夫和卡恩成立了互联网协会(ISOC),一个国际非营利组织。ISOC为负责制定互联网技术标准的互联网工程任务组提供了一个机构的家,并最终扩展到政策和教育活动。Cerf从1992年到1995年担任ISOC主席。2000-2007年,他还担任了互联网名称与数字地址分配机构(ICANN)的董事会主席,该机构负责协调域名系统和其他功能。2005年,瑟夫被谷歌聘为副总裁兼首席互联网布道者。

作者。珍妮特-阿贝特
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