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2002 罗纳德-里维斯特

发表于 2022-4-17 17:00:03 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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Ronald L Rivest
1947, Schenectady, New York, USA

Niskayuna High School, Niskayuna, New York, USA (1965); BA (Mathematics, Yale University, 1969); Ph.D. (Computer Science, Stanford University, 1973)

INRIA, Rocquencourt, France (post-doctorate position, 1973-1974); MIT (professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Department, member of MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, CSAIL, a member of their Theory of Computation Group and a leader of its Cryptography and Information Security Group, from 1974)

Member, National Academy of Engineering (1990); Fellow of the ACM (1993); Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1993); National Computer Systems Security Award (1996); ACM Paris Kanellakis Theory and Practice Award (1997); IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computers and Communications Award, with A. Shamir and L. Adleman (2000); Secure Computing Lifetime Achievement Award, with A. Shamir and L. Adleman (2000); ACM Turing Award, with A. Shamir and L. Adleman (2002); Honorary doctorate, University of Rome La Sapienza (2002); Fellow, International Association for Cryptologic Research (2004); Member, National Academy of Science (2004); MITX Lifetime Achievement Award (2005); Marconi Prize (2007); Computers, Freedom and Privacy Conference "Distinguished Innovator" award (2007); Killian Burgess and Elizabeth Jamieson Award from MIT EECS Department (2008); honorary doctorate, Louvain School of Engineering at the Université Catholique de Louvain (2008); Faculty Achievement Award from MIT (2009); NEC C&C Prize, with A. Shamir and L. Adleman (2009); RSA 2011 Conference Lifetime Achievement Award, with A. Shamir and L. Adleman (2011); named an Institute Professor at MIT (2015).

RONALD (RON) LINN RIVEST DL Author Profile link
United States – 2002
Together with Leonard M. Adleman and Adi Shamir, for their ingenious contribution to making public-key cryptography useful in practice.

Ron Rivest grew up in Niskayuna, New York, a suburb of Schenectady. He attended public schools and graduated from the Niskayuna High School in 1965. He graduated from Yale University in 1969 with a B.A. in mathematics, and from Stanford University in 1973 with a PhD in Computer Science. He learned from the best: his PhD supervisor was Turing Award recipient Robert Floyd, and he worked closely with Turing Award laureate Don Knuth.

Rivest describes his graduate student experience of the Stanford computer science department during the early 1970s.       
Following graduate study he accepted a post-doctoral position at INRIA in Rocquencourt, France before taking a job at MIT, where he has been ever since. He currently holds the Andrew and Erna Viterbi professorship in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

At MIT he met Leonard M. Adleman and Adi Shamir, who collaborated with Ron on their fundamental advance in cryptography. They were inspired by a 1976 paper [4] by cryptographers Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman discussing several new developments in cryptography. It described ways for the sender and receiver of private messages to avoid needing a shared secret key, but it did not provide any realistic way to implement these concepts. Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman presented practical implementations in their 1977 paper, “A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems,” [1] which showed how a message could easily be encoded, sent to a recipient, and decoded with little chance of it being decoded by a third party who sees it.

Rivest describes the creation of the RSA public key cryptosystem..       
The method, known as Public Key Cryptography, uses two different but mathematically linked keys: one public key used to encrypt the message, and a completely different private key used to decrypt it. The encrypting key is made public by individuals who wish to receive messages, but the secret decrypting key is known only them. The two keys are linked by some well-defined mathematical relationship, but determining the decryption key from its publically available counterpart is either impossible or so prohibitively expensive that it cannot be done in practice. The “RSA” method (from the first letters of the names of the three authors) relies on the fact that nobody has yet developed an efficient algorithm for factoring very large integers. There is no guarantee, however, that it will be difficult forever; should a large quantum computer ever be built, it might be able to break the system.

A detailed discussion of the theory and practice behind RSA can be found here. The computer code to implement it is quite simple, and as long as suitably large integer keys are used, no one knows how to break an encoded message.

RSA is used in almost all internet-based commercial transactions. Without it, commercial online activities would not be as widespread as they are today. It allows users to communicate sensitive information like credit card numbers over an unsecure internet without having to agree on a shared secret key ahead of time. Most people ordering items over the internet don’t know that the system is in use unless they notice the small padlock symbol in the corner of the screen. RSA is a prime example of an abstract elegant theory that has had great practical application.

After developing the basic method in 1977, the three Turing Award recipients founded RSA Data Security in 1983. The company was later acquired by Security Dynamics, which was in turn purchased by EMC in 2006. It has done cryptographic research, sponsored conferences, shown how earlier encryption systems could be compromised, and spun off other companies such as Verisign. Rivest thus demonstrated that he could move easily between theory and practice. When the 1983 patent on RSA [2] was about to expire, RSA Data Security published all the details of its implementation so that there would be no question that anyone could create products incorporating the method.

Rivest discusses the challenges of applying RSA and his co-founding of a company, RSA Data Security, to develop its commercial potential.       
The three Turing Award recipients were not aware that a similar method had been developed years before by British mathematician Clifford Cocks, who extended the even earlier work of James H. Ellis. Cocks was doing his encryption work at the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), so it was classified as secret and not released until 1997, twenty years after Rivest, Adleman, and Shamir had published their independent discovery.

In addition to the well-known RSA scheme, Rivest designed several other encoding methods for special applications. RC2, or “Ron’s Code 2,” was designed in 1987 as an encoding method for Lotus Corporation to use in the international version of their Lotus Notes product. The US National Security Agency (NSA) had prohibited the export of software unless it met restrictions designed to ensure that sensitive technology did not fall into unfriendly hands; RC2 was effective but still met those restrictions. Details of all six (two of which were never released) of Ron’s RC algorithms can be found here.

Rivest’s interests in security are not limited to encryption. For example, he is a member of the US government technical committee that develops election guidelines, and he published a 2006 paper [5] describing a novel three-ballot voting scheme. The paper is posted on his MIT website and is modified occasionally to eliminate problems that others have noted. As Rivest notes at the end:

ThreeBallot is hereby placed in the public domain—I am not filing for any patents on this approach, and we encourage others who work on extensions, improvements, or variations of this approach to act similarly. Our democracy is too important...

Ron is also an inspirational teacher. His co-written influential textbook Introduction to Algorithms [3], based on his undergraduate and graduate courses, has become a classroom standard. More than 500,000 copies were sold in 20 years.




国家工程院院士(1990年);ACM院士(1993年);美国艺术与科学院院士(1993年);国家计算机系统安全奖(1996年);ACM巴黎Kanellakis理论与实践奖(1997年);IEEE Koji Kobayashi计算机与通信奖,与A. Shamir和L. Adleman(2000年);安全计算终身成就奖,与A. Shamir和L. Adleman(2000年);ACM图灵奖,与A. Shamir和L. Adleman(2002年);罗马大学La Sapienza分校荣誉博士(2002年);国际密码研究协会研究员(2004年);国家科学院院士(2004年);MITX终身成就奖(2005年);马可尼奖(2007年)。计算机、自由和隐私会议 "杰出创新者 "奖(2007年);麻省理工学院EECS系Killian Burgess和Elizabeth Jamieson奖(2008年);卢万天主教大学卢万工程学院荣誉博士(2008年);麻省理工学院教师成就奖(2009年);NEC C&C奖,与A. Shamir和L. Adleman(2009年);RSA 2011会议终身成就奖,与A. Shamir和L. Adleman(2011年);被任命为麻省理工学院的研究所教授(2015年)。

美国 - 2002年
与Leonard M. Adleman和Adi Shamir一起,为使公钥密码学在实践中发挥作用做出了巧妙的贡献。



在麻省理工学院,他遇到了Leonard M. Adleman和Adi Shamir,他们与罗恩合作,在密码学方面取得了根本性进展。他们的灵感来自于密码学家Whitfield Diffie和Martin Hellman在1976年的一篇论文[4],讨论了密码学的几个新发展。它描述了私人信息的发送者和接收者避免需要共享秘钥的方法,但它没有提供任何现实的方法来实现这些概念。Rivest、Shamir和Adleman在他们1977年的论文 "一种获得数字签名和公钥密码系统的方法"[1]中提出了实际的实现方法,该论文展示了如何轻松地对信息进行编码、发送至收件人并进行解码,而被看到信息的第三方解码的可能性很小。

这种方法被称为公钥加密法,使用两个不同但在数学上有联系的密钥:一个公钥用于加密信息,一个完全不同的私钥用于解密信息。加密密钥由希望接收信息的个人公开,但秘密的解密密钥只有他们知道。这两把钥匙通过某种明确的数学关系联系在一起,但从公开的对应钥匙中确定解密钥匙要么是不可能的,要么是太昂贵了,以至于在实践中无法做到这一点。RSA "方法(来自三位作者名字的第一个字母)依赖于这样一个事实,即还没有人开发出一种有效的算法来处理非常大的整数。然而,并不能保证它永远困难;如果有一天大型量子计算机建成,它可能会打破这个系统。



在1977年开发出基本方法后,三位图灵奖得主于1983年成立了RSA数据安全公司。该公司后来被Security Dynamics收购,后者又在2006年被EMC收购。它做过加密研究,赞助过会议,展示了早期的加密系统是如何被破坏的,并分拆了其他公司,如威瑞信。里弗斯特由此证明,他可以很容易地在理论和实践之间游走。当1983年RSA[2]的专利即将到期时,RSA数据安全公司公布了其实施的所有细节,这样就不会有任何人可以创造出包含该方法的产品。

这三位图灵奖获得者并不知道英国数学家Clifford Cocks在几年前就已经开发了类似的方法,他扩展了James H. Ellis更早的工作。科克斯当时在政府通信总部(GCHQ)从事加密工作,所以它被列为机密,直到1997年才被公布,也就是在里维斯特、阿德尔曼和沙米尔发表他们的独立发现20年后。

除了众所周知的RSA方案外,Rivest还为特殊应用设计了其他几种编码方法。RC2,即 "Ron's Code 2",是在1987年为Lotus公司设计的一种编码方法,用于其Lotus Notes产品的国际版本。美国国家安全局(NSA)曾禁止出口软件,除非它符合旨在确保敏感技术不落入不友好者手中的限制;RC2是有效的,但仍然符合这些限制。罗恩的所有六种(其中两种从未发布)RC算法的细节可以在这里找到。



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