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2022.03.10 哪些西方公司正在离开俄罗斯?

发表于 2022-3-11 22:59:53 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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Which Western companies are leaving Russia?
Around 300 firms are heading for the exit as the war in Ukraine intensifies
Mar 10th 2022

The trickle of Western firms vowing to pull out of Russia has become a flood. On March 10th Goldman Sachs and JP Morgan became the latest. In recent days McDonald’s said it would temporarily close its 847 restaurants in Russia and Coca-Cola said it would be suspending operations. So far Vladimir Putin’s invasion of Ukraine has prompted an exodus of around 300 Western companies from Russia, according to a tally by Jeffrey Sonnenfeld, a professor at Yale University. Some say they are leaving only temporarily, but others, such as Goldman, claim they are going for good. Several energy companies have vowed to quit partnerships with Gazprom and Rosneft, two state-owned Russian energy giants. Russia’s economy ministry is drawing up plans to seize, or to nationalise, foreign-owned companies that are heading for the exit.

Many companies have cited logistical disruptions, sanctions and concerns about the safety of staff as reasons for pulling out. Toyota, which produced around 80,000 vehicles at its plant in St Petersburg in 2021, said it would cease operations on March 4th and halt shipments to Russia because of “supply-chain disruptions”. Nike said it would be pausing operations in the country owing to “the increasing challenges of operating our business”. Such logistical difficulties will only worsen as shipping lines, freight forwarders and trucking companies halt deliveries to and from Russia. The collapse of the rouble will also make imported goods more costly.

But the reputational risk of doing business in Russia may be the biggest push factor. For days, as the death toll in Ukraine grew and millions of refugees fled, many executives stayed silent on the issue. Then, as criticism on social media mounted, and calls for boycotts of Western brands grew louder, they had little choice but to pull out. Such decisions have not always been straightforward. On March 8th Ramon Laguarta, the boss of PepsiCo, said that although the firm would stop selling its fizzy drinks, it would continue selling “essential” goods such as milk and baby food. PayPal, a digital-payments firm, suspended operations in Russia on March 5th but promised to allow customers to withdraw funds “for a period of time”.

Some big firms are still holding out. By Mr Sonnenfeld’s estimates around 40 Western firms with significant operations in the country have yet to swear off the Russian market. On March 10th Deutsche Bank defended its decision to stay even though other major banks had announced they would pull out. Oilfield-services firms, such as Baker Hughes and Schlumberger, have remained quiet. In the retail space, Tadashi Yanai, the chairman and CEO of Fast Retailing, Japan’s biggest clothing retailer, had insisted that the clothing company would keep open its 50 Uniqlo shops in Russia. But on March 10th the firm made a U-turn. “We have recently faced a number of difficulties, including operational challenges and the worsening of the conflict situation,” the company said in a statement. “For this reason, we will temporarily suspend our operations”. It will hardly be the last firm to have a change of heart. ■

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西方公司发誓要撤出俄罗斯的涓涓细流已经变成了洪水。3月10日,高盛和摩根大通成为最新的例子。最近几天,麦当劳表示将暂时关闭其在俄罗斯的847家餐厅,可口可乐公司表示将暂停运营。根据耶鲁大学教授Jeffrey Sonnenfeld的统计,迄今为止,弗拉基米尔-普京对乌克兰的入侵已经促使约300家西方公司从俄罗斯出走。一些公司说他们只是暂时离开,但其他公司,如高盛,声称他们将永远离开。一些能源公司发誓要退出与俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司(Gazprom)和俄罗斯石油公司(Rosneft)这两家国有能源巨头的合作。俄罗斯经济部正在制定计划,以查封或国有化那些正准备退出的外资公司。

许多公司将物流中断、制裁和对员工安全的担忧作为退出的理由。2021年在圣彼得堡的工厂生产了约8万辆汽车的丰田公司说,由于 "供应链中断",它将于3月4日停止运营,并停止向俄罗斯发货。耐克公司表示,由于 "经营业务的挑战越来越大",它将暂停在该国的业务。随着航运公司、货运代理和卡车运输公司停止向俄罗斯发货,这种物流困难只会恶化。卢布的崩溃也将使进口货物更加昂贵。

但在俄罗斯做生意的声誉风险可能是最大的推动因素。几天来,随着乌克兰的死亡人数增加,数百万难民逃离,许多高管在这个问题上保持沉默。然后,随着社交媒体上的批评声此起彼伏,抵制西方品牌的呼声越来越高,他们别无选择,只能撤资。这种决定并不总是直接的。3月8日,百事公司的老板拉蒙-拉瓜尔塔(Ramon Laguarta)说,尽管该公司将停止销售其汽水饮料,但它将继续销售牛奶和婴儿食品等 "必需 "商品。数字支付公司PayPal于3月5日暂停在俄罗斯的业务,但承诺允许客户 "在一段时间内 "提取资金。

一些大公司仍在坚持。据Sonnenfeld先生估计,约有40家在该国有重要业务的西方公司尚未宣誓退出俄罗斯市场。3月10日,德意志银行为其留下的决定辩护,尽管其他主要银行已经宣布他们将退出。贝克休斯和斯伦贝谢等油田服务企业仍然保持沉默。在零售领域,日本最大的服装零售商Fast Retailing的董事长兼首席执行官Tadashi Yanai曾坚持认为,该服装公司将继续在俄罗斯开设其50家优衣库商店。但在3月10日,该公司做出了一个转折。"该公司在一份声明中说:"我们最近面临一些困难,包括运营挑战和冲突局势的恶化。"由于这个原因,我们将暂时中止我们的业务"。它几乎不会是最后一家改变主意的公司。■

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