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[2015.11.21]性教育 床楼梦

2015-11-24 20:35| 发布者: tom| 查看: 113175| 评论: 10|原作者: zhengdetaileile

摘要: 中国农业大学北京校区的讲堂里坐了超过150位本科生,他们齐声说着类似于“性、性爱、性交、阴茎、阴道”等词语。他们中有多人正处于性欲旺盛时期,有的人也即将迎来这一时期。但是对他们大多数人来说,这是他们上的 ...
Sex education
性教育

Dream of the bed chamber
床楼梦





1 “SEX, sex, sexual intercourse, penis, penis, vagina.” More than 150 undergraduates are sitting in a lecture hall at China Agricultural University in Beijing, shouting loudly. Many are sexually active, or soon will be. Yet for most it is the first sex education class they have attended.中国农业大学北京校区的讲堂里坐了超过150位本科生,他们齐声说着类似于“性、性爱、性交、阴茎、阴道”等词语。他们中有多人正处于性欲旺盛时期,有的人也即将迎来这一时期。但是对他们大多数人来说,这是他们上的第一堂性教育课。


2 Their instructor hopes that shouting such words will help youngsters talk more openly about sex. Lu Zhongbao, a 24-year-old forestry student, says he was told as a child that he “emerged from a rock”. When he started having sex with his university girlfriend he had little idea about contraception. This evening he arrived an hour early armed with another question: will masturbating damage his health?
教授这节课的人希望能通过将这类词语大声说出口,能够让这些年轻人更自如讨论两性话题。24岁林业学在读卢忠宝(音译)说他小时候问自己从哪里来的时候,得到的回复是“从石头里蹦出来的”。当他开始和他的大学女友性交时,他对于避孕毫无概念。今晚他提前一个小时来到讲堂,还带着另一个问题:“手淫会损害健康吗?”


3 It is not just China’s economy that has loosened up since 1979. The country is in the midst of a sexual revolution. A 2012 study found that more than 70% of Chinese people have sex before marriage. Other polls put that figure lower but consistently indicate that over the past 30 years, more young Chinese are doing it, with more partners, at a younger age. But a lack of sex education means that many are not protecting themselves, resulting in soaring abortion rates and a rise in sexually transmitted diseases.
中国在1979年后开放的不仅是经济层面。现在,中国更是正在经历一场性文化改革。2012年的一个研究表明,超过70%的中国民众曾有过婚前性行为。其他研究的数字可能相对较低,但是依然表明在过去30年中,中国有过婚前性行为的人数量越来越多,性伴侣数量在上升,而年龄却在下降。但是因为缺乏性教育,许多人都没有在性交过程中保护自己,导致堕胎率的飙升以及性传染病的传播。


4 The Communist Party has stuck its nose into people’s bedrooms for 30 years through its harsh family-planning policies. Yet taboos on sex before marriage prevailed, the result of paternalistic—not religious—values about female chastity, with a dose of Communist asceticism thrown in. Pre-marital sex fell foul of a range of laws, including the catch-all charge of “hooliganism”, only scrapped in 1997.
共产党30年来通过严厉的计划生育政策将权力延伸到人们的卧室里。女性贞洁的传统家庭观念(但这并非宗教原因所致)和共产党禁欲主义相结合,使得婚前性行为依然是禁忌。而婚前性行为与某些法律有所冲突,其中包括定义模糊的“流氓罪”,这项罪名在1997年才被废除。


5 The social climate remains chilly. Most news items about sex involve scandals or crimes. Schools ban pupils from dating and many deploy “morality patrols” to root out flirting or frolicking couples. Sex outside wedlock is not illegal but children born to unmarried mothers face obstacles obtaining a hukou, or household residency, that entitles them to subsidised education and welfare. Yet with greater freedom from their parents, more money and increasing exposure to permissive influences from abroad, China’s youth are clearly separating sex from procreation.
社会对此态度依然非常淡漠。许多与性有关的新闻都涉及丑闻或犯罪行为。学校禁止学生约会,同时其中许多会有安排“道德巡逻队”来根除情侣调情嬉戏的现象。婚前性行为虽然不违法,但是未婚妈妈的孩子在获得户口(所在地户籍)时会面临障碍,而户籍是人们获得国家教育和福利的前提。现在的中国年轻人比起上一辈更加自由、更为富有,同时不断受到国外文化的消极影响,他们会将性爱与生殖行为分得很清楚。


6 Education on the subject is compulsory in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan—societies that have some cultural similarities with China. But most Chinese schools teach only basic anatomy.
在日本、韩国和台湾等这些社会文化与中国相仿的地区,性教育都是必修课。但大多数中国学校仅仅只会教授基本人体结构知识。


7 This is not entirely for lack of trying. Pilot campaigns in Shanghai and Beijing schools in the 1980s were incorporated into a nationwide programme in 1988 but it was never implemented. In 2008 the Ministry of Education included sex education in the national health and hygiene curriculum. The barriers are not just prudery. Like football, fashion and other teenage pastimes, sex (and learning about it) is seen as a distraction from studies. “Sex is not an exam subject,” says Sheng Yingyi, a 21-year-old student.
但是性教育的缺乏并不意味着没有尝试。20世纪80年代,北京和上海的学校曾经就此开展过试点项目。1988年,试点项目合并到一个全国性的项目中,但该项目从未实施。2008年,教育部将性教育写进健康卫生教育课程中。但是实行的障碍不止在于过分的拘谨。和踢足球、追求时尚以及其他青少年消遣一样,性和性教育常常是干扰正常学习的因素。21岁学生盛莹益(音译)说:“性教育不是考试科目。”


8 Where classes happen, most students are merely given a textbook. “Happy Middle School Students”, written for 12- to 15-year-olds in 2006 and still widely used, refers to sperm meeting egg without describing the mechanics of intercourse. A more explicit volume for primary-school pupils published in 2011, which did explain how sperm were delivered, was criticised for being pornographic.
基本所有学校开展性教育课的方式就是给学生一本书,名叫《快乐中学生》。这本2006年出版的教科书专为12到15岁的学生设计,到现在为止依然被许多学校用作性教育教材。但书中只讲述了精子与卵子的融合,但没有讲述性交的机制。另一本为小学生设计的教材于2011年出版,书中直接了当地揭示了精子是如何进入女性体内,但是也因为这样这本教材被批包含色情内容。


9 The dominant message is to abstain. A 2013 review by UNESCO and Beijing Forestry University noted the prevalence of “terror-based” sex education, with content largely focused on the horrors of pregnancy, abortion and HIV. Earlier this month a university in Xi’an in central China ran a course entitled “No Regrets Youth” where students received a “commitment card”, essentially a pledge to remain a virgin until marriage.
对此,社会的主流声音是远离性。由联合国教科文组织和北京林业大学于2013年联合发布的研究显示,现在的性教育大多建立在对性的恐惧之上,性教育的内容大概是意外怀孕、流产和艾滋病的可怕之处。这个月早些时候,西安(中国中部)的一所大学开启了一个名为“青春无悔”的课程,要求学生签署“承诺卡”,要求学生结婚前禁止性行为。


We need to talk 我们要谈谈
10 There is almost no discussion in Chinese schools about love, communication or trust, how to say no or to deal with harassment or abuse. Homosexuality is not discussed, and Chinese parents rarely talk with their children about sex. Peng Xiaohui of Central China Normal University, who runs sex-education classes (including the one at China Agricultural University), had excrement thrown at him last year because of the work he does. Several Chinese and foreign NGOs have tried to fill the gap, but many are now wary after the month-long detention this year of five feminists who had launched a campaign against sexual harassment. Most Chinese youths find out about sex from the internet and online pornography.
在中国的学校中,没有人会讨论有关爱情、沟通或信任以及怎么样反抗和处理面临的性骚扰和性侵犯行为。同性恋问题没有人会提及,而且父母也很少会和子女谈论性的话题。华中师范大学的彭晓辉教授性教育课程(其中就包括在中国农业大学教课),他去年就因所从事的工作被泼粪。有几个中外非政府组织一直尝试弥补这一方面的空缺,但是由于今年五位女权主义者因发起反对性侵犯行为的运动后遭到政府长达一个月的拘留,这些组织现在对此有所担忧。大多数中国的年轻人通过网络和色情网站了解性知识。


11 That does not work well. Because of the mismatch between lust and learning, around a quarter of all sexually active women under 24 get pregnant by mistake. Half of them do not use prophylactics, some because they know little about them, others because of insufficient access.
但是这不是件好事。因为欲望和学习的目的不匹配,在24岁以下性欲旺盛的女性中,有四分之一意外怀孕。他们中有一半人不使用避孕药,因为有的人对此并不了解,还有的人无法正常购买。


12 The pill is not widely used in China, even by married women. The government encourages the use of intra-uterine devices which provide less chance of human error. Until last year advertising condoms on television was banned (abortion, by contrast, is widely promoted). Convenience stores sell condoms, but they are not always available near college campuses.
避孕药很少为中国女性所服用,即使是已婚女性也是如此。政府鼓励夫妻使用宫内装置来减少人为失误。长期以来避孕套的电视广告禁止播出,直到去年才解禁(但是堕胎手术的广告却大规模存在)。便利店有避孕套出售,但不是每个校园附近都有便利店。


13 Those who do use prophylactics often use them wrongly: a 2014 study found that a quarter of under-17s who got pregnant had used some form of birth control. There is also a flourishing trade in “counterfeit condoms”, shoddily made sheaths being passed off as popular name brands. As a result sexually transmitted diseases are on the rise; 91% of new HIV cases are from sexual contact.
而那些服用避孕药的人使用方法却不得当。一个2004年的研究显示,17岁以下怀孕妇女中四分之一的人曾经采取过某些避孕措施。现在市面上还存有大量“假避孕套”,一些粗制滥造的避孕套经过包装变成了大众品牌。也因为如此,性传染病感染率不断上升,且91%的新艾滋病病患通过性接触感染病毒。


Dirty secrets 肮脏的秘密
14 It is hardly surprising that the abortion rate is so high. The one-child policy has made termination a normal phenomenon. Most clinics, private or state, put a premium on speed and offer no advice on how to avoid getting pregnant again. So repeat abortions are common: a study of nearly 80,000 Chinese women who terminated pregnancies in 2013, published in October by the Lancet, a British journal, found that 37% were doing so for the second time, and 29% for a third time or more. Unmarried women account for a rising share of these—and are a significant reason why, after an extended period of decline, terminations have been increasing in number since 2003.
因此,即便是如此高的堕胎率也不足为奇。计划生育政策使得终止妊娠变成一种常态。大多数诊所,不管是私立还是公营的,进行人流手术时都很看重速度,且不会向顾客给出防止再次怀孕的建议。因此多次人流成为正常现象。2013年10月,英国杂志《柳叶刀》发布一项研究表明,在将近8万名曾终止妊娠的中国妇女中,有37%的人是第二次进行人流手术,有29%是第三次或以上。这些人中未婚女性的比例越来越高,这也是为什么堕胎率下降了一段时间后,终止妊娠手术的数量自2003年以来不断上升。


15 Although China has no national system for counting abortions (official statistics include only state facilities), a researcher from the National Health and Family Planning Commission reckons there could be 13m terminations or more a year, a figure widely quoted in state media. But Marie Stopes, an international reproductive-health agency, reckons that figure could be as high as 40m, given domestic sales for pharmaceutical companies selling drugs used in terminations. If that number is correct, around half of all abortions worldwide are in China. The high number of terminations is in marked contrast to the low birth rate. If Marie Stopes is correct, 2.5 babies are aborted in China for every one born, compared with about two live births per termination in Russia and five births to one abortion in America. Even using the widely cited 13m figure, there are nearly as many abortions as births in China each year. That, and not frank talk about sex, is China’s shame.
尽管中国没有专门的系统统计堕胎的次数(官方数据只包含了国有机构的数据),但国家卫生计生委员会的一个研究院认为,每年堕胎数量至少有1300万次,这个数字也常常在官方媒体的报道中出现。但国际生殖健康机构玛丽·斯特普组织认为,从制药公司每年用于终止妊娠药物的国内销售情况看,这个数字应该高达4000万。如果这个数字无误,那么全球范围内一般的堕胎手术都发生在中国。而这么高的堕胎数与如此低的生育率形成了对比。如果玛丽·斯特普组织是对的,那么每个新生儿的出生就伴随着2.5个胎儿被打掉。即使是每年堕胎数是被广泛引用的1300万次,那么每年中国出生的婴儿数和被打掉的胎儿数基本相当。相较于对性的闪烁其词,这才是中国的羞耻所在。

本文地址:http://www.economist.com/news/china/21678839-dream-bed-chamber




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引用 mxrruler 2015-11-21 15:42
sexually active 已有过性行为,不是“正处于性欲旺盛时期”
引用 不帅你就报警 2015-11-21 19:16
引用 zhengdetaileile 2015-11-21 20:25
mxrruler 发表于 2015-11-21 15:42
sexually active 已有过性行为,不是“正处于性欲旺盛时期”

原来如此!谢谢点评!
引用 fsz 2015-11-22 17:56
“SEX, sex, sexual intercourse, penis, penis, vagina.” More than 150 undergraduates are sitting in a lecture hall at China Agricultural University in Beijing, shouting loudly. Many are sexually active, or soon will be. Yet for most it is the first sex education class they have attended.中国农业大学北京校区的讲堂里坐了超过150位本科生,他们齐声说着类似于“性、性爱、性交、阴茎、阴道”等词语。他们中有多人正处于性欲旺盛时期,有的人也即将迎来这一时期。但是对他们大多数人来说,这是他们上的第一堂性教育课。


1。undergraduates: a university student who has not yet received a first degree  还没有拿到本科学历。
      所谓本科生是汉语中一种不规范的称呼。本科生和学士学位都是指一个人的受教育程度,与身份无关。

2。are sitting 的现在进行时,在译文中怎么体现的?

3。  China Agricultural University in Beijing  中国农业大学北京校区  中国农业大学在其他城市还有校区码?确实有个烟台分校。但是分校和校区是两个截然不同的概念。

4 。Someone who is active moves around a lot or does a lot of things. 好动的  
       If you have an active mind or imagination, you are always thinking of new things. (思维或想像力) 活跃的
       If someone is active in an organization, cause, or campaign, they do things for it rather than just giving it their support. 积极主动的

5。he was told as a child that he “emerged from a rock”  这句话能直译一下码?然后与译文对比一下。
      
引用 zhengdetaileile 2015-11-22 18:28
fsz 发表于 2015-11-22 17:56
1。undergraduates: a university student who has not yet received a first degree  还没有拿到本科学 ...

谢谢点评!
引用 ecocnbell 2015-11-25 06:03
床楼梦不如红床梦
引用 mylta 2015-11-25 12:51
ecocnbell: 床楼梦不如红床梦


有人把《红楼梦》英译为 "Dream of the red chamber", 如果本原文作者真地借用了这个书名(仅改了一个字母),本文标题译为《床楼梦》倒也不错。
引用 zhengdetaileile 2015-11-25 13:43
mylta 发表于 2015-11-25 12:51
有人把《红楼梦》英译为 "Dream of the red chamber", 如果本原文作者真地借用了这个书名(仅改了一个字 ...

因为经济学人喜欢引经据典,所以我觉得这个题目是作者有意为之,所以我就选择了最贴近的译法。谢谢点评!
引用 zhengdetaileile 2015-11-25 13:46
ecocnbell 发表于 2015-11-25 06:03
床楼梦不如红床梦

红在题目中没有出现,而且The dream of red chamber是红楼梦的英译,红床梦似乎不太贴近。谢谢点评!
引用 ecocnbell 2015-12-15 23:23
zhengdetaileile 发表于 2015-11-25 13:46
红在题目中没有出现,而且The dream of red chamber是红楼梦的英译,红床梦似乎不太贴近。谢谢点评! ...

这里明显用的是红楼梦的pun,1. bed和red,2. 红楼梦是中国早期敢于大胆描述性内容的文学作品,和文章内容相关,3. 红字在中文里本就可引申性含义,4. 楼字才真正和文章无关,题目中保留了chamber只是出于对书名的引用,5. 如果在没看到文章之前,仅仅“红床”和“床楼”两个词,哪一个更容易让人联想到性,应该是比较明显的。
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