微博

ECO中文网

 找回密码
 立即注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

ECO中文网 门户 优秀译文推荐 中国 查看内容

[2003.06.19] 被蛟龙甩在背后的猛虎

2011-7-29 18:45| 发布者: Somers| 查看: 6650| 评论: 28|原作者: xb3031

摘要: 导致印度更弱的原因不是因为民主,而是因为官僚主义、不宽容以及无意义的竞争。
印度与中国大比拼

被蛟龙甩在背后的猛虎


导致印度更弱的原因不是因为民主,而是因为官僚主义、不宽容以及无意义的竞争。


Jun 19th 2003 | from the print edition



        印度总理阿塔尔•比哈里•瓦杰帕伊(Atal Behari Vajpayee)作为诗人和虔诚的印度教徒都是了不起的。当他于周末抵达中国进行国事访问时,他精神上和美学上的修养将会充分地经受考验。在接下来的五天里,他将面对印度在与其邻国保持同步发展上的彻底失败。25年前,亚洲两大贫穷大国的生活水平基本类似,但是现在,中国人的平均水平几乎是邻国印度的两倍。在任何方面都显示出这种巨大的差距:从上海和北京流光溢彩的机场和商业中心,瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)不得不将其与过时破旧的德里和孟买相比较;到成人的文盲率,印度是中国的三倍之多;以及印度婴儿夭折数量是中国的两倍之多等可怕的事实。

        世界上的领导家们都知道:任何一个美国总统都承担不了长时间远离中国的责任。直到2000年,比尔•克林顿(Bill Clinton)才成为22年以来访问印度的首位白宫主人,而且布什总统还没有确定出访印度的具体日期。巴基斯坦,而非印度,已经回归成为南亚合伙人的选择。这种倾斜意义深长,以致很多圈内人相信,它是导致近期美国驻德里大使提前辞职的原因。对瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)来说,有人曾说他的志向就是看着印度成为大国,这一定让他非常沮丧。

        与任何中国政府官员讨论这个巨大的差距,他(她)很有可能会归咎于印度的民主政治。大家通常会听到,立法进程中的混乱和妥协将对政府稳固的可能性产生不利影响。如果当年邓小平依赖于国会大多数的支持,或者依赖于改选,邓小平将永远不会像1978年那样启动中国的经济改革,该改革导致失业率急剧上升,因为衰退的老旧国有企业突然面临来自生机勃勃私营企业的竞争。即使在印度,有时候也可以听到这种失败主义的言论。

不要责怪民主政治


        对民主主义者来说,值得庆幸的是找到反驳的理由并不难。各国民主并非都是同一种模式,印度的模式不甚理想有其多种原因。腐败在政治和官僚制度中根深蒂固;法制受到软弱不堪且疲于应付的司法系统的束缚;种姓等级制度致使数亿人的需求无法得到(有关方面)听取、申诉及采取改善措施。而且,直到最近,印度甚至看上去一点也不像个真正的民主国家,倒是更类似于由国大党掌管的一党专政的国家,国大党的社会意识形态是由贾瓦哈拉尔•尼赫鲁(Jawarharlal Nehru)确定下来的,该意识形态对自由企业有着深深的敌意,并且干涉国家的经济生活,其程度已经达到毛泽东共产主义的破坏性的程度。

        印度民主主义的缺点没有一个是来自于民主概念的本身,而且无需抛弃民主的理念,所有这些问题都完全能够得以解决。另外,对中国经济过分乐观也是不明智的。印度在软件和其他信息化服务等利润丰厚的领域要远远超过中国,而这些领域信息的自由流通是主要的,但中国政府极端控制的危害更大。仅以经济为中心,忽视中国人由于生活在极权统治下所忍受的巨大劣势同样是不正确的。这些劣势之中,其中之一就是中国的政治结构具有内在地不灵活性,而且存在很多方式使其不断处于瓦解的危险中,有些方式——还记得1989年天安门事变——十分血腥。民主国家容易从困境恢复,对异议和冲突能够也更加容易包容。

        如果民主的存在或缺乏不是导致印度与中国差距的最根本的原因,那原因是什么呢?正如已经提到的,主要原因是印度只是对外开放的过程开始的更加晚些。印度独立只不过是英国统治给许可证统治让路:即使私营企业最小的投资决定都需要经过政府的批准,在德里一直是这样,废除官僚主义这个巨大障碍的工作在改革主义者财政部长曼莫汉•辛格(Manmohan Singh)领导下从1991年才开始,至于为什么不早点开始改革、除了没有智慧的或勇敢的领导,没有其它的原因,而且零星抵抗仍然存在。一个特别异常之处就是体系中为小企业保留着大量的经济部门。中国的改革多花了12年来处理这些障碍。

        也存在其他原因,对印度人民党(BJP)来说,目前印度由不负责任的政府掌管,它在迎合宗教狂热方面做得比推动经济改革更积极,而经济改革的领导几乎都不再血气方刚。(瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)到明年就80岁了,当他充分想要参加大选,他的激励经济改革过程的财政部长年仅65岁)。国大党要好一点,由不起作用的索尼娅•甘地领导,索尼娅被证实没有能力继续实施由国大党开始的改革。一个领导有方的国会政府将可能享受各种各样印度人民党(BJP)所缺乏的优势。因为印度人民党(BJP)首先是一个北印度奇迹,其被迫依赖于现在仍然执政的由20多个党组成的笨拙联盟。这对有效的领导阶层几乎很难凑效。

        除此之外是印度处于永久的备战状态,这甚至是一场与其邻国巴基斯坦争夺克什米尔的核备战。印度顽固的坚信克什米尔属于自己。印度与中国之间不稳定的关系,促使其大量投资核武器和远程导弹,但没有起到任何促进作用。如果瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)认真对待关于印度接受其作为一个中国旁边大国的地位,他应该在克什米尔开始一些大胆的动作。对中国而言,出手相助则会对己十分有益:通过推动巴基斯坦这个大概为其最亲密的外国朋友,做出真诚的努力来停止该地区的动乱。这样,十亿印度人以及周边更广泛的地区都会成为赢家。

 
 
本文由译者 xb3031 提供 点击此处阅读双语版

4

鲜花
1

握手
1

雷人

路过
1

鸡蛋

刚表态过的朋友 (7 人)

发表评论

最新评论

引用 xb3031 2011-7-29 00:08
        
       这篇文章看的时候感觉不是很难,但是翻的时候就尴尬了,发现很多地方翻不出来,烦请各位有空帮忙指点,谢谢!
引用 bluedpiggy 2011-7-29 00:54
本帖最后由 bluedpiggy 于 2011-7-29 01:40 编辑

回复 xb3031 的帖子

应邀前来,说说我的看法吧:

1)Middle Kingdom:
middle kingdom(s) 这个词本身并不特指印度,通常是代指中古世纪封建王朝时期,比如middle kingdoms of india指的是印度2nd century BC到13th century(见wikipedia)。我认为这里翻译做"古老的印度"就可以了。
——翻做"中国",上下文更对头,看下面kool兄的解释

2)Pakistan, not India, is back in favour as the partner of choice in South Asia, a tilt so profound as to explain, many insiders believe, the recent early resignation of the American ambassador to Delhi.
原译是说政治倾向的解释(or to say表现)是大使提前跑路,不过我觉得原文似乎表明的因果关系是相反的,是说大使提前跑路这一行动背后的深刻原因是亲巴远印的政治倾向。不知我的理解是否合适

3)Had he depended on a parliamentary majority, or re-election, goes the argument, Deng Xiaoping could never have launched China's economic reforms as he did in 1978, with the consequent sharp increase in unemployment, as rusty old state-owned businesses suddenly faced competition from sprightlier private ones.
这句虽未标红,我以为却是语法最难的一句。这句是虚拟语气,意思是:假如邓也要依靠国会多数或试图再次当选,他就不可能做到改革开放。原文中had he depended on a parliamentary majority or re-election是虚拟语气+条件状语从句+倒装省略;goes the argument是插入语;Deng could never have launched....是主句主谓。我认为原译在语法理解上与我的想法有很大出入,不知道我的理解是否正确?
引用 kool 2011-7-29 01:17
1)Middle Kingdom:
middle kingdom(s) 这个词本身并不特指印度,通常是代指中古世纪封建王朝时期,比如middle kingdoms of india指的是印度2nd century BC到13th century(见wikipedia)。我认为这里翻译做"古老的印度"就可以了。

这里是中国把
中=middle, 国 = kingdom

美国总统不能长期不理中国,但对印度则交往少得多。

Middle Kingdom may refer to:

    China, traditional translation of its common name, Zhōngguó (simplified Chinese: 中国; traditional Chinese: 中國)
    Middle Kingdom of Egypt
    Middle kingdoms of India
    An administrative region of the Society for Creative Anachronism, consisting of several states in Midwestern United States
    A part of Ocean Park Hong Kong
    Middle Francia
    The Middle Kingdom (album), a 2000 album by Celtic metal band Cruachan
    The "Middle Kingdoms" series of novels by Diane Duane
引用 kool 2011-7-29 01:19
profound 不是 proud

PROFOUND
1
a : having intellectual depth and insight b : difficult to fathom or understand
2
a : extending far below the surface b : coming from, reaching to, or situated at a depth : deep-seated <a profound sigh>
3
a : characterized by intensity of feeling or quality b : all encompassing : complete <profound sleep> <profound deafness>
引用 kool 2011-7-29 01:28
China's reforms have had 12 years longer to deal with such obstacles.

多了12年,
中国改革开始于79,对应印度的91
引用 kool 2011-7-29 01:32
India is, for the moment, saddled with an irresponsible government that is better at pandering to religious zealotry than pressing for economic reform, and which is led by people who are hardly in their first flush of enthusiastic youth

that is better at 和 and which is led by ... 都是government 的定语。
一个不负责任的政府,它更善于迎合宗教狂热,而不是推动经济改革,这个政府是由已经不再有年轻的激情的人领导。
引用 kool 2011-7-29 01:37
Beyond this is India's permanent state of near-war, and nuclear war at that, with its neighbour Pakistan, over its benighted possession, Kashmir.

除此之外是印度因为【黑暗?】领地克什米尔(Kashmir)地区【争端】,而与其邻国巴基斯坦始终处于的临近战争状态,甚至是核战争。
引用 kool 2011-7-29 01:42
Nor, by focusing only on economics, can it be right to ignore the huge disadvantages the Chinese endure by living under totalitarian rule.

It cannot be right to ingore the disadvantages [that] the Chinese endure by living under totalitarian rule
只是以经济为中心,而忽视中国人由于生活在极权主义统治下而带来的劣势是不正确的。
引用 join_soon 2011-7-29 05:10
回复 xb3031 的帖子

India v China
印度与中国大比拼


A tiger, falling behind a dragon
蛟龙背后的猛虎
【被龙甩在后面的虎】

India is weaker thanks not to democracy, but to bureaucracy, intolerance and pointless rivalries
导致印度更弱的原因不是因为民主,而是因为官僚主义、不宽容以及无意义的竞争。


Jun 19th 2003 | from the print edition



        INDIA'S prime minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, is something of a poet as well as a devout Hindu. His spiritual and aesthetic reserves will be tested to the full this weekend, as he arrives on a state visit to China. Over the following five days, he will be confronted with the full extent of India's failure to keep pace with its neighbour. Twenty-five years ago, living standards in the two dirt-poor Asian giants were similar, but now the average Chinese is nearly twice as well-off as his Indian neighbour. This huge discrepancy manifests itself at every level: from the glittering new airports and business centres of Beijing and Shanghai, which Mr Vajpayee will have sadly to compare with the outmoded squalor of Delhi and Mumbai, to the rate of adult illiteracy, which is almost three times higher in India than in China, to the awful fact that twice as many Indian as Chinese babies die in infancy.

        印度总理阿塔尔•比哈里•瓦杰帕伊(Atal Behari Vajpayee)作为诗人和虔诚的印度人都是了不起的。当他于周末抵达中国进行国事访问时,他精神上和美学上的储备【修养】将会充分地经受考验。在接下来的五天里,他将【全方位地】面对印度【的失败,印度】在与其邻国保持同步发展上的【---- delete】彻底失败【了】。25年前,亚洲两大贫穷大国的生活水平基本类似,但是现在,中国人的平均水平几乎是邻国印度的两倍。在任何方面都显示出这种巨大的差距:从上海和北京流光溢彩的机场和商业中心,瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)不得不将其与过时破旧的德里和孟买相比较;到成人的文盲率,印度是中国的三倍之多;以及印度婴儿夭折数量是中国的两倍之多等可怕的事实。

        The world's leaders know it: no American president can afford to stay away from the Middle Kingdom for long, but in 2000, Bill Clinton became the first occupant of the White House to go to India for 22 years, and President Bush has not yet set a date for following him. Pakistan, not India, is back in favour as the partner of choice in South Asia, a tilt so profound as to explain, many insiders believe, the recent early resignation of the American ambassador to Delhi. For Mr Vajpayee, who once said that his life's ambition was to see India take its place as a great nation, it must be very dispiriting.

        世界上的领导家们都知道:没有哪一个美国总统能够长时间远离中央国王【中国】,但是2000年,比尔•克林顿(Bill Clinton)成为22年以来访问印度的首个入住白宫者【白宫居住人】,而且布什总统还没有确定效仿克林顿做法的具体日期。巴基斯坦,而非印度,已经回归成为南亚合伙人的选择。很多内部人员相信,这种倾斜最骄傲的解释就是近期美国驻德里大使提前的辞职这个倾斜牵涉甚深,甚至可以解释近期美国驻德里大使的提前辞职对瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)来说,有人曾说他的志向就是看着印度成为大国,这一定让他非常沮丧。

        Discuss this yawning gulf with any Chinese official, and the chances are that he or she will blame it on India's democracy. The chaos and compromise of the legislative process, one will generally hear, militates against the possibility of firm government. Had he depended on a parliamentary majority, or re-election, goes the argument, Deng Xiaoping could never have launched China's economic reforms as he did in 1978, with the consequent sharp increase in unemployment, as rusty old state-owned businesses suddenly faced competition from sprightlier private ones. Even in India, one sometimes hears defeatist talk of this kind (see article).

        与任何中国政府官员讨论这个巨大的差距,他(她)很有可能会归咎于印度的民主政治。大家通常会听到,立法进程中的混乱和妥协将对政府稳固的可能性产生不利影响。他依赖于国会大多数的支持还是改选,依然值得讨论。【这个论点可以接着说,如果当年邓小平依赖于国会大多数的支持,或者依赖于改选,】邓小平将永远不会像1978年那样启动中国的经济改革。【那个改革】导致失业率急剧上升,因为衰退的老旧国有企业突然面临来自生机勃勃私营企业的竞争。即使在印度,有时候也可以听到失败主义者谈论这些话题【这种失败主义的言论。】

Don't blame democracy
不要责怪民主政治


        Fortunately for democrats, it is not hard to supply a rebuttal. Democracies are not all of a piece, and there are many ways in which India is not a very good one. Corruption in the political and bureaucratic system is endemic. The rule of law is constrained by a creaking and overwhelmed judicial system. The caste system prevents hundreds of millions of Indians from having their needs and demands heard and acted upon. Moreover, until very recently, India didn't even look much like a true democracy at all: it more closely resembled a one-party state, run by the Congress party, whose socialist ideology, laid down by Jawarharlal Nehru, was deeply hostile to free enterprise and interfered in the economic life of the nation to an extent that was almost as destructive as Mao's communism.

        对民主主义者来说,值得庆幸的是找到反驳的理由并不难。民主【各个民主国家】并不是一个整体【并不都是一样的】,导致印度不是很好的方式有很多种。政治腐败和官僚制度是地方性的【印度的固有特色】;法制受到腐朽【超载而勉强运行】的司法系统压制【制约】种姓等级制度致使数亿人的需要无法满足、要求无法听取而且行动无法实施。而且,直到最近,印度甚至看上去一点也不像个真正的民主国家,倒是更类似于由国大党掌管的一党专政的国家,国大党的社会意识形态是由贾瓦哈拉尔•尼赫鲁(Jawarharlal Nehru)确定下来的,该意识形态对自由企业有着深深的敌意,并且干涉国家的经济生活,其程度已经达到毛泽东共产主义的破坏性的程度。

        None of the weaknesses in India's version of democracy is inherent in the notion of democracy itself, and all of them are perfectly fixable without having to throw the idea of democracy overboard. Besides, it would be unwise to be too starry-eyed about China's economy. India remains streets ahead of China in the lucrative area of software and other information-based services, where the free flow of knowledge matters more, and where the Chinese government's control-freakery is much more of a handicap. Nor, by focusing only on economics, can it be right to ignore the huge disadvantages the Chinese endure by living under totalitarian rule. Among these should be counted the fact that China's political structure is inherently inflexible, and is constantly at risk of falling apart in any number of ways, some of them—remember Tiananmen Square in 1989—quite bloody. Democracies tend to be more resilient, more able to absorb dissent and conflict.

        印度民主主义的缺点没有一个是来自于民主概念的本身,而且不需要将民主的理念抛向国外就能够完全确定下来【而且不需要将民主的理念抛掉就能够完全修复】。另外,对中国经济过分乐观也是不明智的。印度在软件和其他信息化服务等利润丰厚的领域要远远超过中国,而这些领域信息的自由流通是主要的,但【所以】中国政府古怪的控制【控制狂更像是障碍【的危害就更大】。即便只是以经济为中心,那么忽视中国人由于生活在极权主义统治下而对巨大劣势的容忍是否正确呢【还有,忽视中国人由于生活在极权主义统治下而承担着许多巨大的劣势也是不正确的,而只讨论经济学容易造成这个忽视】这其中必须指出【这些劣势之中,其中之一就是】中国的政治机构【政治结构】与生俱来的顽固【具有内在地不灵活性】,而且存在很多方式使其不断处于瓦解的危险中,有些方式——还记得1989年天安门事变——十分血腥。民主倾向于更加有弹性的,对异议和冲突能够更加包容。【民主国家容易从困境恢复,对异议和冲突能够也更加容易包容】。

        But if democracy or the lack of it is not the root cause of India's divergence from China, what is? Mostly, as already noted, that India simply started the process of opening up later. Indians used to joke that the British raj had given way to the licence raj: even the smallest investment decision by a private firm required government approval, very often all the way from Delhi. The work of dismantling this bureaucratic behemoth started only in 1991 under a reformist finance minister, Manmohan Singh—there was no reason why it could not have started earlier, bar the absence of sufficiently intelligent or brave leadership—and pockets of resistance remain. One particular anomaly is the system that reserves extensive sectors of the economy for small businesses. China's reforms have had 12 years longer to deal with such obstacles.

        如果民主的存在或缺乏不是导致印度与中国差距的最根本的原因,那原因是什么呢?正如已经提到的,通常【主要原因是,】印度只是对外开放的过程开始的更加晚些。印度曾经开玩笑说【印度独立只不过是】英国统治给许可证统治让路:即使私营企业最小的投资决定都需要经过政府的批准,在德里一直是这样【而且经常是需要在德里的最高当局的批准】,废除官僚主义这个巨大障碍的工作在改革主义者财政部长曼莫汉•辛格(Manmohan Singh)领导下从1991年才开始,【至于】为什么不早点开始改革、禁止足够智慧或勇敢的领导阶层缺席是没有原因的【?--除了没有智慧的或勇敢的领导,没有其它的原因。】,而且零星抵抗【改革的事情】仍然存在。一个特别异常之处就是【印度有个】体系【,它】中【-- delete】为小企业保留着大量的经济部门。中国的改革用了12年之久来处理这些障碍。

        There are other reasons, too. In the Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP), India is, for the moment, saddled with an irresponsible government that is better at pandering to religious zealotry than pressing for economic reform, and which is led by people who are hardly in their first flush of enthusiastic youth (Mr Vajpayee will be 80 next year, when he fully intends to fight a general election: his finance minister, who ought to be galvanising the reform process, is 65). The Congress party is little better: it is led by the ineffectual Sonia Gandhi, who has proved incapable of making the case for continuing the reforms her own party started. A well-led Congress government would potentially enjoy all sorts of advantages that the BJP lacks. Because the BJP is primarily a northern-Indian phenomenon, it is forced to rely on an unwieldy coalition, which currently consists of 20-odd parties, to remain in power. That is hardly a recipe for effective leadership.

        也存在其他原因,对印度人民党(BJP)来说【在印度人民党(BJP)这方面】目前印度由不负责任的政府掌管,【他们只会】在 【-- delete】迎合宗教狂热方面【---- delete】强制经济改革要好的多【不懂推动经济改革】,


----------------------later

而强制经济改革的领导是由几乎没有充满激情的少年时的第一冲动的人
(瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)到明年就80岁了,当他充分想要参加大选,他的激励经济改革过程的财政部长年仅65岁)。国大党要好一点,由不起作用的索尼娅•甘地领导,索尼娅被证实没有能力继续实施由国大党开始的改革。一个领导有方的国会政府将可能享受各种各样印度人民党(BJP)所缺乏的优势。因为印度人民党(BJP)首先是一个北印度奇迹,其被迫依赖于现在仍然执政的由20多个党组成的笨拙联盟。这对有效的领导阶层几乎很难凑效。

        Beyond this is India's permanent state of near-war, and nuclear war at that, with its neighbour Pakistan, over its benighted possession, Kashmir. India's uneasy relations with China, which prompt it to invest wastefully in nuclear weapons and long-range missiles, do not help either. If Mr Vajpayee is serious about India taking its place, alongside China, as a great nation, he could start with a few bold gestures over Kashmir. It would be greatly to China's advantage to help, by pushing Pakistan, perhaps the closest of all its foreign friends, to make a genuine effort to halt violence there. A billion Indians, as well as the wider region, would be the winners.

        除此之外是印度永久状态的新战争,以及与其邻国巴基斯坦在其愚昧领地克什米尔(Kashmir)地区的核战争。印度与中国之间不稳定的关系,促使其大量投资核武器和远程导弹,但没有起到任何促进作用。如果瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)认真对待关于印度接受其作为一个中国旁边大国的地位,他应该在克什米尔开始一些大胆的动作。通过助推巴基斯坦,也许是两国最亲密的外国朋友,中国将有利于帮助做出真正的努力来停止该地区的暴乱。十亿印度人和更广泛的地区将会成为赢家。
引用 skittos 2011-7-29 05:36
本帖最后由 skittos 于 2011-7-29 06:08 编辑

lz 邀了不少tx点评。
我也应邀写了较多的意见。可能不少已和上面tx的点评重复了。中文修改意见仅作释意参考。

A tiger, falling behind a dragon
蛟龙背后的猛虎
-------------------------
falling behind 之意不是很明显。
猛虎,落在蛟龙之后 ?

...is something of a poet as well as a devout Hindu——既有诗人的气质同时也是个虔诚的印度人。
His spiritual and aesthetic reserves will be tested to the full this weekend, as he arrives on a state visit to China.
reserves (矜持、谨慎、谦和)


引用 skittos 2011-7-29 05:36
本帖最后由 skittos 于 2011-7-29 06:02 编辑

The world's leaders know it: no American president can afford to stay away from the Middle Kingdom for long, but in 2000, Bill Clinton became the first occupant of the White House to go to India for 22 years, and President Bush has not yet set a date for following him. Pakistan, not India, is back in favour as the partner of choice in South Asia, a tilt so profound as to explain, many insiders believe, the recent early resignation of the American ambassador to Delhi. For Mr Vajpayee, who once said that his life's ambition was to see India take its place as a great nation, it must be very dispiriting.

        世界上的领导家们都知道:没有哪一个美国总统能够长时间远离中央国王,但是2000年,比尔•克林顿(Bill Clinton)成为22年以来访问印度的首个入住白宫者,而且布什总统还没有确定效仿克林顿做法的具体日期。巴基斯坦,而非印度,已经回归成为南亚合伙人的选择。很多内部人员相信,这种倾斜最骄傲的解释就是近期美国驻德里大使提前的辞职。对瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)来说,有人曾说他的志向就是看着印度成为大国,这一定让他非常沮丧。
======================
no American president can afford to stay away from the Middle Kingdom for long, but in 2000, Bill Clinton became the first occupant of the White House to go to India for 22 years,
Middle Kingdom——China
任何一个美国总统都承担不了过久没去出访中国的责任。直到2000年,比尔•克林顿(Bill Clinton)才成为22年以来访问印度的首位白宫主人。
这句意思是说:美国总统必须经常拜访中国,却忽略了印度22年之久。布什甚至都没有访印的意图。


a tilt so profound as to explain, many insiders believe, the recent early resignation of the American ambassador to Delhi.
profound (深奥)
这种倾斜意义深长,以致很多圈内人相信,它是导致近期美国驻德里大使提前辞职的原因。

a great nation:伟大的国家
引用 skittos 2011-7-29 05:40
本帖最后由 skittos 于 2011-7-29 05:56 编辑

Fortunately for democrats, it is not hard to supply a rebuttal. Democracies are not all of a piece, and there are many ways in which India is not a very good one. Corruption in the political and bureaucratic system is endemic. The rule of law is constrained by a creaking and overwhelmed judicial system. The caste system prevents hundreds of millions of Indians from having their needs and demands heard and acted upon. Moreover, until very recently, India didn't even look much like a true democracy at all: it more closely resembled a one-party state, run by the Congress party, whose socialist ideology, laid down by Jawarharlal Nehru, was deeply hostile to free enterprise and interfered in the economic life of the nation to an extent that was almost as destructive as Mao's communism.

        对民主主义者来说,值得庆幸的是找到反驳的理由并不难。民主并不是一个整体,导致印度不是很好的方式有很多种。政治腐败和官僚制度是地方性的;法制受到腐朽的司法系统压制;种姓等级制度致使数亿人的需要无法满足、要求无法听取而且行动无法实施。而且,直到最近,印度甚至看上去一点也不像个真正的民主国家,倒是更类似于由国大党掌管的一党专政的国家,国大党的社会意识形态是由贾瓦哈拉尔•尼赫鲁(Jawarharlal Nehru)确定下来的,该意识形态对自由企业有着深深的敌意,并且干涉国家的经济生活,其程度已经达到毛泽东共产主义的破坏性的程度。
================================
Democracies are not all of a piece------------民主并非都为同一种模式。
and there are many ways in which India is not a very good one.——印度的模式不甚理想有其多种原因。

断句:
Corruption //in the political and bureaucratic system// is endemic.
endemic——(systematic and everywhere)
腐败在政治和官僚制度中根深蒂固,流行甚广


The rule of law is constrained by a creaking and overwhelmed judicial system.
creaking -- Show weakness or frailty under strain
法制受到软弱不堪且疲于应付的司法系统的束缚。



The caste system prevents hundreds of millions of Indians from having their needs and demands// heard and acted upon.
种姓等级制度致使数亿印度人的需求无法得到(有关方面)听取申诉及采取改善措施。


引用 skittos 2011-7-29 05:47
本帖最后由 skittos 于 2011-7-29 05:54 编辑

None of the weaknesses in India's version of democracy is inherent in the notion of democracy itself, and all of them are perfectly fixable without having to throw the idea of democracy overboard. Besides, it would be unwise to be too starry-eyed about China's economy. India remains streets ahead of China in the lucrative area of software and other information-based services, where the free flow of knowledge matters more, and where the Chinese government's control-freakery is much more of a handicap. Nor, by focusing only on economics, can it be right to ignore the huge disadvantages the Chinese endure by living under totalitarian rule. Among these should be counted the fact that China's political structure is inherently inflexible, and is constantly at risk of falling apart in any number of ways, some of them—remember Tiananmen Square in 1989—quite bloody. Democracies tend to be more resilient, more able to absorb dissent and conflict.

        印度民主主义的缺点没有一个是来自于民主概念的本身,而且不需要将民主的理念抛向国外就能够完全确定下来。另外,对中国经济过分乐观也是不明智的。印度在软件和其他信息化服务等利润丰厚的领域要远远超过中国,而这些领域信息的自由流通是主要的,但中国政府古怪的控制更像是障碍。即便只是以经济为中心,那么忽视中国人由于生活在极权主义统治下而对巨大劣势的容忍是否正确呢。这其中必须指出中国的政治机构与生俱来的顽固,而且存在很多方式使其不断处于瓦解的危险中,有些方式——还记得1989年天安门事变——十分血腥。民主倾向于更加有弹性的,对异议和冲突能够更加包容。
===============================
all of them are perfectly fixable without having to throw the idea of democracy overboard
而且无需抛弃民主的理念,所有这些问题都完全能够得以解决。

注意这两句:it would be unwise .... Nor can it be right...(引出也是倒装否定句)
Nor, by focusing only on economics, can it be right to ignore the huge disadvantages the Chinese endure by living under totalitarian rule.
仅以经济为中心,忽视中国人由于生活在极权统治下所忍受的巨大劣势同样是不正确的
引用 skittos 2011-7-29 05:48
        There are other reasons, too. In the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), India is, for the moment, saddled with an irresponsible government that is better at pandering to religious zealotry than pressing for economic reform, and which is led by people who are hardly in their first flush of enthusiastic youth (Mr Vajpayee will be 80 next year, when he fully intends to fight a general election: his finance minister, who ought to be galvanising the reform process, is 65). The Congress party is little better: it is led by the ineffectual Sonia Gandhi, who has proved incapable of making the case for continuing the reforms her own party started. A well-led Congress government would potentially enjoy all sorts of advantages that the BJP lacks. Because the BJP is primarily a northern-Indian phenomenon, it is forced to rely on an unwieldy coalition, which currently consists of 20-odd parties, to remain in power. That is hardly a recipe for effective leadership.

        也存在其他原因,对印度人民党(BJP)来说,目前印度由不负责任的政府掌管,在迎合宗教狂热方面,这比强制经济改革要好的多,而强制经济改革的领导是由几乎没有充满激情的少年时的第一冲动的人(瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)到明年就80岁了,当他充分想要参加大选,他的激励经济改革过程的财政部长年仅65岁)。国大党要好一点,由不起作用的索尼娅•甘地领导,索尼娅被证实没有能力继续实施由国大党开始的改革。一个领导有方的国会政府将可能享受各种各样印度人民党(BJP)所缺乏的优势。因为印度人民党(BJP)首先是一个北印度奇迹,其被迫依赖于现在仍然执政的由20多个党组成的笨拙联盟。这对有效的领导阶层几乎很难凑效。
============================
India is, for the moment, saddled with an irresponsible government //that is better at pandering to religious zealotry than pressing for economic reform, and which is led by people who are hardly in their first flush of enthusiastic youth

in their first flush of enthusiastic youth ——if someone is in the first flush of something, they are at the start of it
目前印度由不负责任的政府掌管,它在迎合宗教狂热方面做得比推动经济改革更积极,而经济改革的领导几乎都不再血气方刚。
引用 skittos 2011-7-29 05:52
本帖最后由 skittos 于 2011-7-29 09:01 编辑

Beyond this is India's permanent state of near-war, and nuclear war at that, with its neighbour Pakistan, over its benighted possession, Kashmir. India's uneasy relations with China, which prompt it to invest wastefully in nuclear weapons and long-range missiles, do not help either. If Mr Vajpayee is serious about India taking its place, alongside China, as a great nation, he could start with a few bold gestures over Kashmir. It would be greatly to China's advantage to help, by pushing Pakistan, perhaps the closest of all its foreign friends, to make a genuine effort to halt violence there. A billion Indians, as well as the wider region, would be the winners.

        除此之外是印度永久状态的新战争,以及与其邻国巴基斯坦在其愚昧领地克什米尔(Kashmir)地区的核战争。印度与中国之间不稳定的关系,促使其大量投资核武器和远程导弹,但没有起到任何促进作用。如果瓦杰帕伊(Vajpayee)认真对待关于印度接受其作为一个中国旁边大国的地位,他应该在克什米尔开始一些大胆的动作。通过助推巴基斯坦,也许是两国最亲密的外国朋友,中国将有利于帮助做出真正的努力来停止该地区的暴乱。十亿印度人和更广泛的地区将会成为赢家。
===================================================
Beyond this is India's permanent state of near-war, and nuclear war at that, with its neighbour Pakistan, over its benighted possession, Kashmir.
这句短语较多,其中:
near-war ——接近战争状态
and nuclear war at that ——解释war,指接近核战争的状态
over its benighted possession, Kashmir——因印度的顽固坚信克什米尔是属于它的领土

除此之外是印度处于永久的备战状态,这甚至是场与其邻国巴基斯坦争夺克什米尔的核备战。印度顽固的坚信克什米尔属于自己。

India's uneasy relations with China, which prompt it to invest wastefully in nuclear weapons and long-range missiles, do not help either.
do not help either
这句的either 没译出:这句意思是指   印度针对中国的军事竞争投资也没有帮助(改善其地位)。

It would be greatly to China's advantage to help, by pushing Pakistan, perhaps the closest of all its foreign friends, to make a genuine effort to halt violence there. A billion Indians, as well as the wider region, would be the winners.
通过助推巴基斯坦,也许是两国最亲密的外国朋友,中国将有利于帮助做出真正的努力来停止该地区的暴乱。十亿印度人和更广泛的地区将会成为赢家。
-----------------------
对中国而言,出手相助则会对己十分有益:通过推动巴基斯坦这个大概为其最亲密的外国朋友,做出真诚的努力来停止该地区的动乱。这样,十亿印度人以及周边更广泛的地区都会成为赢家。
引用 ustcnjnu 2011-7-29 10:05
LZ邀请了bluedpiggy, kool ,join_soon, skittos4位大版主来评定,我等必定要仔细拜读。总而言之,言而总之,我看完之后,发现我已经没有问题可问。。。也没有错误可以指出了。。。伤心围观。。。
引用 yannanchen 2011-7-29 13:02
a devout Hindu.
不是虔诚的印度人, 而是虔诚的印度教徒
引用 xb3031 2011-7-29 15:17
回复 bluedpiggy 的帖子

      谢谢美女bluedpiggy 版主熬夜修改译文,感激不尽,关于提到的第三点,让我又清晰地发现自己语法还是特别薄弱,此处的结构分析帮助作用更甚。此处也有多位版主指出错误,版主的理解很正确!Thanks~~
引用 xb3031 2011-7-29 15:19
kool 发表于 2011-7-29 01:19
profound 不是 proud

PROFOUND

嗯,此文翻译中最悲剧的地方,居然看错单词,而且还有两处类似的错误,谢谢kool前辈精心修改。

查看全部评论(28)

QQ|小黑屋|手机版|网站地图|关于我们|七月天| ECO中文网 ( 京ICP备06039041号  

GMT+8, 2020-12-5 05:08 , Processed in 0.063342 second(s), 24 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.3

© 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

返回顶部