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[2012.10.06] Eric Hobsbawm 著名历史学家霍布斯鲍姆逝世

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发表于 2012-10-7 21:41:19 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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本帖最后由 左耳听爱 于 2012-10-11 23:27 编辑

【导读】:他是英国著名的历史学家,也是一位坚定的共产主义者。

Eric Hobsbawm
艾瑞克•霍布斯鲍姆


Eric Hobsbawm, historian, died on October 1st, aged 95
艾瑞克•霍布斯鲍姆,历史学家,卒于10月1日,享年95岁


Oct 6th 2012 | from the print edition


HIS boyhood enthusiasm for the countryside, especially for its birds, never left him. His heart soared at the sight of a red kite or a hen harrier. He mourned how rarely he heard the song of the yellowhammer, “a-little-bit-of-bread-and-no-cheese”, on his hikes through the hills of mid-Wales to which he had retreated, close to the River Wye.

在童年时期,霍布斯鲍姆深切地热爱着乡村,特别是那里的小鸟,这种热情从未离他远去。每当看见红鸢或是白尾鹞①,他都会格外激动。他隐居在临近瓦伊河②的威尔士中部山脉,当他徒步攀登这些山脉时,总是感到很遗憾,因为很少能听到黄鹉唱“a-little-bit-of-bread-and-no-cheese”。

Eric Hobsbawm was a rare bird himself: “the last living Communist”, as he was teased at his 90th birthday party, and one of the last committed Marxist historians. He had become a Communist at secondary school in Berlin in 1932, and joined the party when he went up to his beloved King’s, Cambridge in 1936, because politics was his passion and it was either Hitler or the other side. But he remained for 50 years until Communism foundered, collapsing “so completely”, he wrote, “that it must now be obvious that failure was built into this enterprise from the start.” Why, then, had he stayed? Because he was of the generation that believed the October Revolution of 1917 was the great hope of the world; and he could not bear to betray either the revolution itself, or those who had fought for it.

艾瑞克•霍布斯鲍姆他自己就是一只稀有的鸟:在他90岁的生日派对上,有人取笑他说,他是“最后一位活着的共产主义者”,也是现存的坚定的马克思主义历史学家之一。1932年,霍布斯鲍姆在柏林读中学,那时他就成为了一名共产主义者。1936年,霍布斯鲍姆进入他所挚爱的剑桥大学国王学院学习。他热爱政治,而且当时的选择只有希特勒和共产主义,因此他加入了共产党。但之后的50年他都没有退党,直到共产主义严重受挫。他写道,“共产主义崩塌了,其程度之彻底让人们清楚地看到,失败的种子早在这项事业开始时就埋下了。”那么当时他为什么没有退党呢?因为他那一代人相信,1917年的十月革命是给世界带来巨大希望的革命。他不忍背叛革命本身,也不忍背叛那些为革命而奋战的人。

There were testing moments, for sure. In 1956, after Soviet tanks crushed the Hungarian uprising and Khrushchev exposed the crimes of the Soviet past, Mr Hobsbawm’s embrace of Stalinism was revealed for the folly it was. Most of his intellectual friends left the party. He stayed, gradually regretting that he had remained an apologist for “Uncle Joe” for so long. But just as he kept his kneejerk political obsessions—supporting, for example, any team that played football against a country, like Croatia, that had a fascist fellow-travelling past—so he remembered the Soviet Union, horrors and all, with an indulgence he could not feel for China.

当然,他也遇到过考验。1956年,苏联政府用坦克镇压了匈牙利人的起义,赫鲁晓夫揭露苏维埃以前所犯的罪行,这使霍布斯鲍姆对斯大林主义的拥护显得十分愚蠢。他的知识分子好友大多都退出了共产党。霍布斯鲍姆没有退党,之后他开始后悔他为“乔大叔③”做了那么久的辩护者。他对政治的痴迷是本能的,比如,只要有一个足球队与克罗地亚这样曾与法西斯为伍的国家对战,他就会表示支持。正如他保留了这种痴迷一样,他沉溺在对苏联的记忆中,包括那些恐怖的事,这种沉溺在他面对中国时是不曾有的。(同样,一想起苏联,包括那些恐怖的事,他就放任自己沉溺在回忆中。但他对中国从没这样的感情。----小雪的版本

Alongside his Communism, he insisted on remaining a Marxist historian. Again, he was asked why.It put him in a ghetto, when he had rather cleverly—with his blue eyes, fair hair and English father—got through a childhood in interwar Vienna as der Engländer, rather than being labelled as the Jew he also was. That Marxist tag threatened to tarnish his reputation, when his lucid and scholarly books on what he called the long 19th century, from 1789 to 1914 (“The Age of Revolution”, “The Age of Capital”, “The Age of Empire”), on nationalism and on labour movements deserved, and won, an audience well beyond leftist circles and academe.

除了坚信共产主义,霍布斯鲍姆还坚持做一个马克思主义历史学家。同样地,又有人问他何苦要这样他坚持做马克思主义历史学家,因此被送进犹太人聚居区;尽管早在童年时, 借着他的金发碧眼和英籍父亲, 他曾相当巧妙地以英国人的身份在维也纳度过两次世界大战之间的时光,而未因犹太人这一身份而被打入另册。他把1789年至1914年这段时间称为“漫长的”19世纪/长19世纪,并针对这段时期写了三本书,即《革命的年代》、《资本的年代》和《帝国的年代》;他还针对民族主义和工人运动写了几本书,这些学术性著作叙述清晰易懂,吸引了许多左派圈子和学术界以外的读者,这都是他应得的。尽管如此,但马克思主义的标签却可能损害了他的声誉。 (他这个马克思主义历史学家的衔头也让他的声誉有受损之虞; 尽管他的几部针对1789-1914 这段他所谓19长世纪的著作(《革命的年代》、《资本的年代》和《帝国的年代》),以及论述民族主义和工人运动的、分析透彻且学理深厚的著作理所当然地为他赢得远在左派圈和学术界之外的读者群。----yannanchen版译法)

Defiant, Mr Hobsbawm championed Marx to the last. For his intellectual force; for his grasp of the world as a whole, at once political, economic, scientific and philosophical; and not least for his conviction, as relevant in 2008 as in 1848, that the capitalist system, with its yawning inequalities and naked greed, would inevitably—irresistibly—necessarily—be destroyed by its own internal tensions, and would be superseded by something better.

但霍布斯鲍姆不顾别人的看法,直到最后还坚持拥护马克思。因为马克思有着智慧的力量;因为他会同时从政治、经济、科学、哲学的角度来整体地把握世界;更因为他坚信,资本主义制度难以逾越的不平等和赤裸裸的贪婪会使其被自身的内部矛盾所推翻,并最终被更好的制度所取代,这一趋势是必然的、不可抵抗的。马克思的这一信念到了2008年也依旧如同在1848年那样具有现实意义。(鄙睨一切对手,霍布斯鲍姆捍卫马克思直到最后一刻。 因为马克思给他带来智慧的力量; 因为马克思教他学会从政治、经济、科学、哲学各方面同时整体地把握世界; 尤其是马克思给他带来了一个信念, 这个信念1848年时适用, 到了2008年同样适用, 那就是, 资本主义制度, 由于其与日俱增的不公平和毫不掩饰的贪婪, 将不可避免地-----无法抵抗地-----而且是必然无疑地,被它自身内部的张力所摧毁, 被一个更好的制度所取代。----yannanchen版译法

The joy of mass protest
大规模抗议的乐趣


As well as naive idealism, nostalgia tinged his writings. He wrote his history of the short 20th century (1914-1991), “The Age of Extremes”, as a “participant observer”, marvelling that he could have come through the most absurd and monstrous century in human history feeling, for the most part, happy. He might leave no mark behind, as “common men” tended not to, but he had lent his boyish effort to wider collective ends: tall, ugly, gangly and mostly solitary, marching in the Berlin snow, stuffing leaflets into letterboxes, against a background of looming cataclysm.

霍布斯鲍姆的作品不仅饱含纯真的理想主义,同时还透露着怀旧之情。他以一个“参与观察者”的身份,将其20世纪的那段经历(1914-1991)写成了一本书,名叫《极端的年代》。他在书中惊讶于自己本可以走过人类历史上最荒诞最怪异的一个世纪,而且还能在大多数时间保持一种快乐的姿态。作为一个“普通人”,他可能并没有留下,也不想留下什么痕迹,但他却将稚气的努力献给了更广泛的集体目标:霍布斯鲍姆又高又瘦,长相并不十分好看,且通常都是独居,他在柏林的风雪中前行,将传单塞进一个个邮筒——当时,一场大变动正逐渐逼近。(但他却带着一颗稚嫩的心,献身于公共事业:在“山雨欲来风满楼”之时,一个长相一般的瘦高青年经常独自一人,在柏林的风雪中前行,将传单塞进一个个邮筒。----小雪的译法

Above and beneath all, he was a romantic. He enjoyed the writings of Joseph Roth, especially “The Radetzky March”, with its image of a world where people of many languages and religions could somehow rub along together (needing only liberty and equality to achieve the Communist internationalist paradise). And he revelled in that most demotic and subversive music, jazz. He was almost as proud of being an amateur jazz critic (writing for years, under a pseudonym, for the New Statesman) as he was of being a professional historian. There too, ideology crept in. He lamented that jazz since 1960 had fossilised, losing that dynamic of change from below; and when Billie Holliday died, he wrote that it was impossible to listen to her thin, gritty voice without hating the world which had made her what she was.

无论是内在还是外在,霍布斯鲍姆都是个浪漫的人。他喜欢读约瑟夫•罗特④的作品,特别是《拉德斯基进行曲》,在这本书所描绘的世界里,不同语言、不同信仰的人们可以一起生活,虽有摩擦,但也相安无事(只需要自由和平等就可以到达共产国际主义的天堂)。霍布斯鲍姆还沉醉于最通俗、最具颠覆性的音乐——爵士乐。作为一位专业的历史学家,成为一名业余的爵士评论家(他曾多年创作爵士乐评论作品,并以笔名向《新政治家》⑤投稿)给他带来的自豪感几乎可以媲美前者。(他以成为一名专业的历史学家为豪;同样让他自豪的是,自己也是一名业余的爵士评论家----小雪的版本)这些评论作品中也潜藏着他的意识形态。自1960年开始,爵士乐失去了来自底层人民的那种活力,渐渐变得僵化,霍布斯鲍姆为此而感到遗憾;在比莉•哈乐黛死去时,霍布斯鲍姆这样写道:听着她那尖细而又坚定的声音,想要不憎恨这个给她带来种种遭遇的世界是不可能的。

By the end of the 20th century he no longer expected revolution in the West (nor in Latin America, though he was feted there, especially in Brazil and Paraguay). Shocking inequalities did not seem to urge people on to the streets. In Britain in the 1980s it was clear, even to him, that handing the Labour Party to the hard left would not stop the working man voting for Margaret Thatcher. The most famous modern manifestation of leftish fury, in Paris in May 1968, seemed to him a Club Med affair of spoiled middle-class kids.

到了20世纪末,霍布斯鲍姆不再期待西方国家的改革(同样,他也不在期盼拉美国家会爆发革命,虽然在拉丁美洲他很受欢迎,特别是巴西和巴拉圭)。巨大的不平等似乎并没有促使人们走上街头进行抗议。在上个世纪80年代的英国,即使将工党交由强硬的左派管理也无法阻止工人们投票给玛格丽特•撒切尔,这一点对人们,甚至于对霍布斯鲍姆来说都是十分明显的。1968年5月,巴黎愤怒的左派人士掀起了现代最为著名的示威运动,然而此次运动在霍布斯鲍姆看来也不过是一群来自地中海俱乐部的被宠坏了的中产阶级孩子组织的度假活动

Yet part of him had longed to be there. Next to sex, he claimed, there was nothing so physically intense as “participation in a mass demonstration at a time of great public exaltation”. Which perhaps explains why this lifelong Marxist revolutionary struggled on his Zimmer frame to get to a neighbour’s house in Wales to watch the Thames Jubilee pageant this summer—and to enthuse about how he had just seen a buzzard circling overhead.

然而,从某些方面来说,他渴望着能参与其中。他说,除了性,没有什么能像“在群情激昂时参与游行示威”那样让人在生理上如此激动紧张。或许这一点能解释为什么这位一生都执着于马克思主义的革命者会在齐默式助行架的支撑下,挣扎着走到威尔士一位邻居家中,去看看今年夏天在泰晤士河上举行的钻禧巡游活动,并因看到一只秃鹰在头顶盘旋而兴奋不已。

from the print edition | Obituary

背景参考:
白尾鹞
瓦伊河
乔大叔
约瑟夫•罗特
《新政治家》

影哥的译法:
霍布斯鲍姆,自其童孩时代开始,就热爱乡村,由衷的喜欢乡村里特有的鸟儿。这份情感至今未随着时间的流逝,渐渐退去。每当抬头望见红色风筝或者白尾鹞,他都会触景生情。艾瑞克徒步穿过威尔士中部连绵起伏的山丘,前往瓦伊河附近--他的归隐之地。路途中,他能听到黄鹀鸣唱那首,‘小块没有奶酪的面包’ (“a-little-bit-of-bread-and-no-cheese”),是难能可贵的,而这又让他忧伤不已。

求大侠指点,左耳在这里谢过各位:@_易雪_ @nayilus @敛刃 @深巷花 @悠悠万事97 @林木木 @migmig @BearDY

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发表于 2012-10-7 22:38:10 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 敛刃 于 2012-10-8 20:57 编辑

段1
“a-little-bit-of-bread-and-no-cheese”
途中他会带上一点点面包,但是却不带奶酪。
之所以用引号和连字符是表示在 Hobsbwam 听来黄鹂就好像在唱着:“带-一-点-点-面-包-但-不-带-奶-酪”

段2
一只“稀有的鸟类”
一只鸟类不妥。“类”去掉

But he remained for 50 years until Communism foundered
但之后的50年他都没有退党,直到共产主义失败
这里的 foundered 或许说的是前苏联解体的事。我觉得“失败”或许过于直白绝对,译为“直到共产主义严重受挫”较好

was built into this enterprise from the start
失败的种子早在一开始就埋下了。
enterprise 要译出
失败的种子早在这项事业开始的时候就埋下了。

Because he was of the generation that
因为如那一代人一样,他相信
因为他那一代人相信

段3
There were testing moments, for sure
当然,他也遇到过考验人的时刻
可译为:
当然,他也曾经遇到过考验

Khrushchev exposed the crimes of the Soviet past
这里的 Soviet 可译为“苏维埃”

Mr Hobsbawm’s embrace of Stalinism
这使霍布斯鲍姆对斯大林的信奉
这使霍布斯鲍姆对斯大林主义的拥护

段4
It put him in a ghetto,
It 可能指代的是  remaining a Marxist historian。 in a ghetto 可能是指他身在犹太人居住区

when his lucid and scholarly books on what he called the long 19th century, from 1789 to 1914 (“The Age of Revolution”, “The Age of Capital”, “The Age of Empire”), on nationalism and on labour movements deserved
并针对这段时间写了三本书,即《革命的年代》、《资本的年代》和《帝国的年代》。他还针对民族主义和工人运动写了几本书,这些学术性著作清晰易懂,吸引了许多左派圈子和研究会的读者,这都是他应得的。
译文这样表达似乎容易让读者觉得这三本书和“针对民族主义和工人运动写了几本书”是分开的。我觉得原文的意思就是这三本书是针对民族主义和工人运动的。

and won, an audience well beyond leftist circles and academe.
吸引了许多左派圈子和研究会的读者
academe 表示学术界。well beyond 表示范围上的超过,意指这些书的读者远不仅仅是左派圈子和学术界

段5
as relevant in 2008 as in 1848 没译,可能是指他坚信的理念从1848年到2008年一直都有现实意义


段1

tall, ugly, gangly and mostly solitary, marching in the Berlin snow, stuffing leaflets into letterboxes, against a background of looming cataclysm.
霍布斯鲍姆又高又瘦,他的长相并不十分好看,且多数时间都喜欢隐居,在一场大变动逐渐逼近的时代背景下,他行进在柏林的风雪中,将传单塞进邮筒。
霍布斯鲍姆又高又瘦,长相并不好看,而且通常都是独居。他在柏林的风雪中前行,将传单塞进一个个邮筒——当时,一场大灾变正在隐隐逼近。(WoW躺枪

he revelled in that
霍布斯鲍姆还喜欢
霍布斯鲍姆还沉醉于

it was impossible to listen to her thin, gritty voice without hating the world which had made her what she was.
想要不憎恨这个雕塑出她的世界是不可能的。
可能是指“想要不憎恨这个给她带来种种遭遇的世界是不可能的。”

倒数2段
特别是巴西和巴拉圭
特别是在

handing the Labour Party to the hard left
即使将工党交由极左派分子管理
强硬的左派。“极左”叫 far-left

末段
Yet part of him had longed to be there
然而,还是有一部分的他渴望着能参与其中。
然而,从某些方面来说,他渴望着能参与其中。

“在群众激情高昂时参与游行示威”
“在群情激昂时参与游行示威”

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发表于 2012-10-8 09:31:49 | 显示全部楼层
Defiant, Mr Hobsbawm championed Marx to the last. For his intellectual force; for his grasp of the world as a whole, at once political, economic, scientific and philosophical; and not least for his conviction, as relevant in 2008 as in 1848, that the capitalist system, with its yawning inequalities and naked greed, would inevitably—irresistibly—necessarily—be destroyed by its own internal tensions, and would be superseded by something better.

但霍布斯鲍姆不顾别人的看法,坚持拥护马克思到最后。因为他有着智慧的力量,他将世界看做是一个整体,同时也将它看做是政治的、经济的、科学的、哲学的。尤其重要的是,他坚信资本主义制度难以逾越的不平等和赤裸裸的贪婪会使其被自身的内部矛盾所推翻,并最终被更好的制度所取代,这一趋势是必然的、不可抵抗的。

这一段有漏掉的。

点评

粗心了,已补上~  发表于 2012-10-8 20:43
哎呀呀,板凳被抢了  发表于 2012-10-8 10:06
发表于 2012-10-8 09:44:27 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 migmig 于 2012-10-8 09:46 编辑

认真看了,翻的很好


der Engländer 是德语?

点评

恩,是德语~  发表于 2012-10-8 20:43
发表于 2012-10-8 09:50:10 | 显示全部楼层
但霍布斯鲍姆不顾别人的看法,坚持拥护马克思到最后。因为有着智慧的力量,他将世界看做是一个整体,同时也将它看做是政治的、经济的、科学的、哲学的。尤其重要的是,他坚信资本主义制度难以逾越的不平等和赤裸裸的贪婪会使其被自身的内部矛盾所推翻,并最终被更好的制度所取代,这一趋势是必然的、不可抵抗的。

这个他似乎有些指代不明,应该是马克思吧?

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已改成马克思,多谢mig兄~!  发表于 2012-10-8 20:43

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发表于 2012-10-8 10:05:17 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 林木木 于 2012-10-8 10:06 编辑

a little bit of bread and no cheese:(UK, idiomatic, onomatopoeic) the song of the yellowhammer.
http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/a_little_bit_of_bread_and_no_cheese
He mourned how rarely he heard the song of the yellowhammer, “a-little-bit-of-bread-and-no-cheese”,
这句指的是不是他很久没听到 “a-little-bit-of-bread-and-no-cheese”这首歌了呢?

rare bird (plural rare birds):An unusual or exceptional person or thing; a rara avis.
http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/rare_bird
可不可以说“稀有物种”?

as he was teased at his 90th birthday party
被动?
有人取笑他说?

Alongside his Communism, he insisted on remaining a Marxist historian. Again, he was asked why. It put him in a ghetto, when he had rather cleverly—with his blue eyes, fair hair and English father—got through a childhood in interwar Vienna as der Engländer, rather than being labelled as the Jew he also was.
我觉得it指的是 a Marxist historian,注意时态~
我理解的意思是霍布斯鲍姆幼年时没有因为身为犹太人被送入犹太人聚居区,反而是成年后因为坚称自己是马克思主义历史学家而被送进去的

when his lucid and scholarly books on what he called the long 19th century, from 1789 to 1914 (“The Age of Revolution”, “The Age of Capital”, “The Age of Empire”), on nationalism and on labour movements deserved
说的是不是这三本书是关于nationalism and on labour movements的?

and won, an audience well beyond leftist circles and academe.
beyond漏译了嗷~

for his grasp of the world as a whole, at once political, economic, scientific and philosophical;
同时从政治、经济、科学与哲学方面整体把握世界?

as relevant in 2008 as in 1848,
哪去了?

He wrote his history of the short 20th century (1914-1991), “The Age of Extremes”, as a “participant observer”,
the short 20th century是否和上文的the long 19th century对应?
不如说在那段时间的经历?

marvelling that he could have come through the most absurd and monstrous century in human history feeling, for the most part, happy.
虚拟语气?

Above and beneath all, he was a romantic.
可不可以理解为above all and beneath all?

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发表于 2012-10-8 10:05:40 | 显示全部楼层
第一句-----red kite:【鸟类】鸢(Accipitridae)

他很少听到黄鹉的歌唱,为此他忧伤不已。
忧伤不已---惋惜

as he was teased at his 90th birthday party
注意这里是被动形式

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已修改,多谢echo版~分没了,明儿个补上~  发表于 2012-10-8 20:48

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发表于 2012-10-8 10:18:04 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 柏之晓 于 2012-10-8 15:16 编辑

Again, he was asked why. It put him in a ghetto, when he had rather cleverly—with his blue eyes, fair hair and English father—got through a childhood in interwar Vienna as der Engländer, rather than being labelled as the Jew he also was.
It put him in a ghetto个人感觉,可以理解为“这个问题的答案在犹太人贫民区”
got through a childhood in interwar Vienna 在两战期间的维也纳熬过童年时代
因此在两次世界大战期间,他在维也纳安然地度过了童年。左耳MM心地善良,不忍心说他童年不幸

for his grasp of the world as a whole, at once political, economic, scientific and philosophical;
他把世界理解为在政治、经济、科学、哲学方面均统一的整体

He might leave no mark behind, as “common men” tended not to,
他或许没有留下什么痕迹,因为“普通人”往往不会。

水平有限,不当之处多多包涵

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It put him in a ghetto采纳了木木的意见 最后一句的as我理解成“作为了” 多谢柏兄~!  发表于 2012-10-8 20:51
发表于 2012-10-8 13:38:46 | 显示全部楼层
在童年时期,霍布斯鲍姆深切地热爱着乡村,特别是那里的小鸟,这种热情从未离他远去。每当看见红色的风筝或是白尾鹞①,他都会心潮澎湃。他会穿越威尔士中部山脉,前往瓦伊河②附近他所隐居之处,途中他会带上一点点面包,但是却不带奶酪。在这样的徒步旅行中,他很少听到黄鹉的歌唱,为此他忧伤不已。

发表于 2012-10-8 14:22:39 | 显示全部楼层
赏析赏析~赏析这位可爱大作家的文儿,真愉快哦~过来看看~嘻嘻~

第一段我是这样翻译的~增词拣词~不晓得,这样可否,呵呵,其中有些地方,我们一起来看看吧~

霍布斯鲍姆,自其童孩时代开始(我把boyhood看成是一个状语了~嘿嘿这样可行波),就热爱乡村,由衷的喜欢乡村里特有的鸟儿(这里我意译了一下,its,这里个人觉得是乡村里头特有的东东,不晓得这样理解可行波)。这份情感至今未随着时间的流逝,渐渐退去(扩充了这句只有三个单词组成的动宾结构~这样,也能说明他对乡村的爱,还是炙热的吧)。每当抬头看到红色风筝或者白尾鹞,他就触景生情(heart不仅仅含有心的意思,其实,还有内心感情的意思在里头哦~soar,是情绪高涨的意思。所以,我这里觉得应该是看到了熟悉的东西,而触景生情了。)他徒步(on one's hikes 徒步)穿过威尔士中部连绵起伏的山丘(hills ,山脉那就长了哇,记得英美概况里头说,威尔士中部都是连绵起伏的山丘丘捏),前往瓦伊河附近--他的归隐之地(这里用归隐之地可行吗?)。路途中,艾瑞克能听到黄鹀鸣唱那首,‘小块没有奶酪的面包’ (“a-little-bit-of-bread-and-no-cheese”),是难能可贵的(how rarely 这里的rarely,是罕见地,也没有错,可是再想想,这个单词的意思,是不是少的那么珍贵呢?)而这又让他忧伤不已。
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