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诺贝尔奖名单 1901—2021

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发表于 2022-3-29 15:03:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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All Nobel Prizes


Between 1901 and 2021, the Nobel Prizes and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel were awarded 609 times to 975 people and organisations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 943 individuals and 25 organisations. Below, you can view the full list of Nobel Prizes and Nobel Prize laureates.

2021
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2021
“for groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of complex systems”

Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann “for the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming”

Giorgio Parisi “for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2021
Benjamin List and David MacMillan “for the development of asymmetric organocatalysis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2021
David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian “for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2021
Abdulrazak Gurnah “for his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2021
Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov “for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace”

Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2021
David Card “for his empirical contributions to labour economics”

Joshua D. Angrist and Guido W. Imbens “for their methodological contributions to the analysis of causal relationships”

2020
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2020
Roger Penrose “for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity”

Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez “for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020
Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna “for the development of a method for genome editing”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2020
Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice “for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus”.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2020
Louise Glück “for her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal”.

The Nobel Peace Prize 2020
World Food Programme (WFP) “for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2020
Paul R. Milgrom and Robert B. Wilson “for improvements to auction theory and inventions of new auction formats”

2019
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019
“for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos”

James Peebles “for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology”

Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019
John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino “for the development of lithium-ion batteries”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019
William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2019
Peter Handke “for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2019
Abiy Ahmed Ali “for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2019
Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty”

2018
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018
“for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics”

Arthur Ashkin “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems”

Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018
Frances H. Arnold “for the directed evolution of enzymes”

George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter “for the phage display of peptides and antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018
James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo
“for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2018
Olga Tokarczuk “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2018
Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad
“for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2018
William D. Nordhaus “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis”

Paul M. Romer “for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis”

2017
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish and Kip S. Thorne
“for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017
Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson
“for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young
“for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017
Kazuo Ishiguro
“who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2017
International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)
“for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2017
Richard H. Thaler
“for his contributions to behavioural economics”

2016
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz
“for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa
“for the design and synthesis of molecular machines”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016
Yoshinori Ohsumi
“for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2016
Bob Dylan
“for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2016
Juan Manuel Santos
“for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2016
Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmström
“for their contributions to contract theory”

2015
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015
Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald
“for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar
“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015
William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura
“for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

Tu Youyou
“for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2015
Svetlana Alexievich
“for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2015
National Dialogue Quartet
“for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2015
Angus Deaton
“for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare”

2014
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura
“for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner
“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014
John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser
“for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2014
Patrick Modiano
“for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2014
Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai
“for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2014
Jean Tirole
“for his analysis of market power and regulation”

2013
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013
François Englert and Peter W. Higgs
“for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel
“for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof
“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013
Alice Munro
“master of the contemporary short story”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2013
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
“for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2013
Eugene F. Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert J. Shiller
“for their empirical analysis of asset prices”

2012
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012
Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland
“for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka
“for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka
“for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2012
Mo Yan
“who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2012
European Union (EU)
“for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012
Alvin E. Roth and Lloyd S. Shapley
“for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design”

2011
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011
Dan Shechtman
“for the discovery of quasicrystals”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann
“for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

Ralph M. Steinman
“for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2011
Tomas Tranströmer
“because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman
“for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2011
Thomas J. Sargent and Christopher A. Sims
“for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy”

2010
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010
Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov
“for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki
“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010
Robert G. Edwards
“for the development of in vitro fertilization”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010
Mario Vargas Llosa
“for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual’s resistance, revolt, and defeat”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2010
Liu Xiaobo
“for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2010
Peter A. Diamond, Dale T. Mortensen and Christopher A. Pissarides
“for their analysis of markets with search frictions”

2009
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
Charles Kuen Kao
“for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication”

Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith
“for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath
“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak
“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009
Herta Müller
“who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2009
Barack H. Obama
“for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009
Elinor Ostrom
“for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons”

Oliver E. Williamson
“for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm”

2008
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Yoichiro Nambu
“for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics”

Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa
“for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien
“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
Harald zur Hausen
“for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier
“for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2008
Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio
“author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2008
Martti Ahtisaari
“for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2008
Paul Krugman
“for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity”

2007
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007
Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg
“for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007
Gerhard Ertl
“for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies
“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2007
Doris Lessing
“that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2007
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr.
“for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2007
Leonid Hurwicz, Eric S. Maskin and Roger B. Myerson
“for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”

2006
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
John C. Mather and George F. Smoot
“for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006
Roger D. Kornberg
“for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006
Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello
“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2006
Orhan Pamuk
“who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2006
Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank
“for their efforts to create economic and social development from below”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2006
Edmund S. Phelps
“for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy”

2005
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
Roy J. Glauber
“for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence”

John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hänsch
“for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005
Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock
“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005
Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren
“for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005
Harold Pinter
“who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression’s closed rooms”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2005
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradei
“for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005
Robert J. Aumann and Thomas C. Schelling
“for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis”

2004
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004
David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose
“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004
Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck
“for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2004
Elfriede Jelinek
“for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society’s clichés and their subjugating power”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2004
Wangari Muta Maathai
“for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004
Finn E. Kydland and Edward C. Prescott
“for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles”

2003
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003
Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003
“for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes”

Peter Agre
“for the discovery of water channels”

Roderick MacKinnon
“for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield
“for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2003
John M. Coetzee
“who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2003
Shirin Ebadi
“for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2003
Robert F. Engle III
“for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)”

Clive W.J. Granger
“for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)”

2002
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
Raymond Davis Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”

Riccardo Giacconi
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
“for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules”

John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka
“for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”

Kurt Wüthrich
“for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston
“for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002
Imre Kertész
“for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2002
Jimmy Carter
“for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2002
Daniel Kahneman
“for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty”

Vernon L. Smith
“for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms”

2001
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001
William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori
“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”

K. Barry Sharpless
“for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse
“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2001
Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul
“for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2001
United Nations (U.N.) and Kofi Annan
“for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2001
George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence and Joseph E. Stiglitz
“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”

2000
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
“for basic work on information and communication technology”

Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer
“for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”

Jack S. Kilby
“for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa
“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel
“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000
Gao Xingjian
“for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2000
Kim Dae-jung
“for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2000
James J. Heckman
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples”

Daniel L. McFadden
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice”

1999
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999
Gerardus ‘t Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman
“for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999
Ahmed H. Zewail
“for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999
Günter Blobel
“for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1999
Günter Grass
“whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1999
Médecins Sans Frontières
“in recognition of the organization’s pioneering humanitarian work on several continents”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1999
Robert A. Mundell
“for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas”

1998
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998
Walter Kohn
“for his development of the density-functional theory”

John A. Pople
“for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1998
José Saramago
“who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1998
John Hume and David Trimble
“for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998
Amartya Sen
“for his contributions to welfare economics”

1997
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker
“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”

Jens C. Skou
“for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997
Stanley B. Prusiner
“for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1997
Dario Fo
“who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1997
International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody Williams
“for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1997
Robert C. Merton and Myron S. Scholes
“for a new method to determine the value of derivatives”

1996
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff and Robert C. Richardson
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996
Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold W. Kroto and Richard E. Smalley
“for their discovery of fullerenes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996
Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel
“for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1996
Wislawa Szymborska
“for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1996
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta
“for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1996
James A. Mirrlees and William Vickrey
“for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information”

1995
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995
“for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics”

Martin L. Perl
“for the discovery of the tau lepton”

Frederick Reines
“for the detection of the neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland
“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1995
Seamus Heaney
“for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1995
Joseph Rotblat and Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
“for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1995
Robert E. Lucas Jr.
“for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy”

1994
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994
“for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter”

Bertram N. Brockhouse
“for the development of neutron spectroscopy”

Clifford G. Shull
“for the development of the neutron diffraction technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994
George A. Olah
“for his contribution to carbocation chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994
Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell
“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994
Kenzaburo Oe
“who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994
Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin
“for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994
John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr. and Reinhard Selten
“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”

1993
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993
Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993
“for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry”

Kary B. Mullis
“for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method”

Michael Smith
“for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993
Richard J. Roberts and Phillip A. Sharp
“for their discoveries of split genes”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1993
Toni Morrison
“who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1993
Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk
“for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1993
Robert W. Fogel and Douglass C. North
“for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”

1992
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992
Georges Charpak
“for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992
Rudolph A. Marcus
“for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992
Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs
“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992
Derek Walcott
“for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1992
Rigoberta Menchú Tum
“for her struggle for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1992
Gary S. Becker
“for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour”

1991
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
“for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991
Richard R. Ernst
“for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991
Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann
“for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991
Nadine Gordimer
“who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1991
Aung San Suu Kyi
“for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1991
Ronald H. Coase
“for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy”

1990
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990
Elias James Corey
“for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990
Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas
“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1990
Octavio Paz
“for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1990
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
“for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1990
Harry M. Markowitz, Merton H. Miller and William F. Sharpe
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”

1989
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989
Norman F. Ramsey
“for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks”

Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul
“for the development of the ion trap technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989
Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech
“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus
“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1989
Camilo José Cela
“for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man’s vulnerability”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1989
The 14th Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso)
“for advocating peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1989
Trygve Haavelmo
“for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures”

1988
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel
“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1988
Naguib Mahfouz
“who, through works rich in nuance – now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous – has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1988
United Nations Peacekeeping Forces
“for preventing armed clashes and creating conditions for negotiations”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1988
Maurice Allais
“for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources”

1987
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987
J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alexander Müller
“for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen
“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987
Susumu Tonegawa
“for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1987
Joseph Brodsky
“for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1987
Oscar Arias Sánchez
“for his work for lasting peace in Central America”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1987
Robert M. Solow
“for his contributions to the theory of economic growth”

1986
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
Ernst Ruska
“for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope”

Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
“for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi
“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986
Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini
“for their discoveries of growth factors”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1986
Wole Soyinka
“who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1986
Elie Wiesel
“for being a messenger to mankind: his message is one of peace, atonement and dignity”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1986
James M. Buchanan Jr.
“for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making”

1985
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985
Klaus von Klitzing
“for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985
Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle
“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985
Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein
“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1985
Claude Simon
“who in his novel combines the poet’s and the painter’s creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1985
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
“for spreading authoritative information and by creating awareness of the catastrophic consequences of nuclear war”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1985
Franco Modigliani
“for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets”

1984
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984
Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer
“for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984
Robert Bruce Merrifield
“for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein
“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1984
Jaroslav Seifert
“for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1984
Desmond Mpilo Tutu
“for his role as a unifying leader figure in the non-violent campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1984
Richard Stone
“for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis”

1983
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar
“for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars”

William Alfred Fowler
“for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983
Henry Taube
“for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983
Barbara McClintock
“for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1983
William Golding
“for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1983
Lech Walesa
“for non-violent struggle for free trade unions and human rights in Poland”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1983
Gerard Debreu
“for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium”

1982
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982
Kenneth G. Wilson
“for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982
Aaron Klug
“for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane
“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1982
Gabriel García Márquez
“for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent’s life and conflicts”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1982
Alva Myrdal and Alfonso García Robles
“for their work for disarmament and nuclear and weapon-free zones”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982
George J. Stigler
“for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation”

1981
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981
Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Leonard Schawlow
“for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”

Kai M. Siegbahn
“for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981
Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann
“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Roger W. Sperry
“for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”

David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel
“for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981
Elias Canetti
“for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1981
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
“for promoting the fundamental rights of refugees”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1981
James Tobin
“for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices”

1980
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980
James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch
“for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980
Paul Berg
“for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA”

Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger
“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell
“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1980
Czeslaw Milosz
“who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man’s exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1980
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
“for being a source of inspiration to repressed people, especially in Latin America”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1980
Lawrence R. Klein
“for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies”

1979
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
Herbert C. Brown and Georg Wittig
“for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979
Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield
“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1979
Odysseus Elytis
“for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man’s struggle for freedom and creativeness”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1979
Mother Teresa
“for her work for bringing help to suffering humanity”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1979
Theodore W. Schultz and Sir Arthur Lewis
“for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries”

1978
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa
“for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics”

Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson
“for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978
Peter D. Mitchell
“for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith
“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1978
Isaac Bashevis Singer
“for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1978
Mohamed Anwar al-Sadat and Menachem Begin
“for jointly having negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel in 1978”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1978
Herbert A. Simon
“for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations”

1977
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977
Ilya Prigogine
“for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally
“for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

Rosalyn Yalow
“for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1977
Vicente Aleixandre
“for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man’s condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1977
Amnesty International
“for worldwide respect for human rights”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1977
Bertil Ohlin and James E. Meade
“for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements”

1976
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976
Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting
“for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976
William N. Lipscomb
“for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976
Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek
“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1976
Saul Bellow
“for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1976
Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan
“for the courageous efforts in founding a movement to put an end to the violent conflict in Northern Ireland”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1976
Milton Friedman
“for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy”

1975
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson and Leo James Rainwater
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975
John Warcup Cornforth
“for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions”

Vladimir Prelog
“for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1975
Eugenio Montale
“for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1975
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov
“for his struggle for human rights in the Soviet Union, for disarmament and cooperation between all nations”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1975
Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich and Tjalling C. Koopmans
“for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources”

1974
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974
Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish
“for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974
Paul J. Flory
“for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade
“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974
Eyvind Johnson
“for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom”

Harry Martinson
“for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1974
Seán MacBride
“for his efforts to secure and develop human rights throughout the world”

Eisaku Sato
“for his contribution to stabilize conditions in the Pacific rim area and for signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1974
Gunnar Myrdal and Friedrich August von Hayek
“for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena”

1973
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever
“for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively”

Brian David Josephson
“for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973
Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson
“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen
“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1973
Patrick White
“for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1973
Henry A. Kissinger and Le Duc Tho
“for jointly having negotiated a cease fire in Vietnam in 1973”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1973
Wassily Leontief
“for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems”

1972
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972
John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972
Christian B. Anfinsen
“for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation”

Stanford Moore and William H. Stein
“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972
Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter
“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1972
Heinrich Böll
“for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1972
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1972
John R. Hicks and Kenneth J. Arrow
“for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory”

1971
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971
Dennis Gabor
“for his invention and development of the holographic method”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971
Gerhard Herzberg
“for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
“for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1971
Pablo Neruda
“for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent’s destiny and dreams”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1971
Willy Brandt
“for paving the way for a meaningful dialogue between East and West”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1971
Simon Kuznets
“for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development”

1970
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970
Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén
“for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics”

Louis Eugène Félix Néel
“for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970
Luis F. Leloir
“for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod
“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1970
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn
“for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1970
Norman E. Borlaug
“for having given a well-founded hope – the green revolution”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1970
Paul A. Samuelson
“for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science”

1969
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969
Murray Gell-Mann
“for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969
Derek H. R. Barton and Odd Hassel
“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria
“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1969
Samuel Beckett
“for his writing, which – in new forms for the novel and drama – in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1969
International Labour Organization (I.L.O.)
“for creating international legislation insuring certain norms for working conditions in every country”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969
Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen
“for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes”

1968
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968
Luis Walter Alvarez
“for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968
Lars Onsager
“for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1968
Yasunari Kawabata
“for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1968
René Cassin
“for his struggle to ensure the rights of man as stipulated in the UN Declaration”

1967
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967
Hans Albrecht Bethe
“for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967
Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter
“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1967
Miguel Angel Asturias
“for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1967
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1966
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966
Alfred Kastler
“for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966
Robert S. Mulliken
“for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
Peyton Rous
“for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

Charles Brenton Huggins
“for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
“for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people”

Nelly Sachs
“for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel’s destiny with touching strength”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1966
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1965
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965
Robert Burns Woodward
“for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod
“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1965
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov
“for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1965
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
“for its effort to enhance solidarity between nations and reduce the difference between rich and poor states”

1964
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964
Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
“for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964
Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen
“for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1964
Jean-Paul Sartre
“for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1964
Martin Luther King Jr.
“for his non-violent struggle for civil rights for the Afro-American population”

1963
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
Eugene Paul Wigner
“for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles”

Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen
“for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963
Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta
“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley
“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1963
Giorgos Seferis
“for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1963
Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross) and Ligue des Sociétés de la Croix-Rouge (League of Red Cross Societies)
“for promoting the principles of the Geneva Convention and cooperation with the UN”

1962
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962
Lev Davidovich Landau
“for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962
Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew
“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1962
John Steinbeck
“for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1962
Linus Carl Pauling
“for his fight against the nuclear arms race between East and West”

1961
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961
Robert Hofstadter
“for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons”

Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer
“for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961
Melvin Calvin
“for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961
Georg von Békésy
“for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1961
Ivo Andric
“for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1961
Dag Hammarskjöld
“for developing the UN into an effective and constructive international organization, capable of giving life to the principles and aims expressed in the UN Charter”

1960
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960
Donald Arthur Glaser
“for the invention of the bubble chamber”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960
Willard Frank Libby
“for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Peter Brian Medawar
“for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1960
Saint-John Perse
“for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1960
Albert John Lutuli
“for his non-violent struggle against apartheid”

1959
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959
Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain
“for their discovery of the antiproton”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959
Jaroslav Heyrovsky
“for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg
“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1959
Salvatore Quasimodo
“for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1959
Philip J. Noel-Baker
“for his longstanding contribution to the cause of disarmament and peace”

1958
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958
Frederick Sanger
“for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum
“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

Joshua Lederberg
“for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1958
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak
“for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1958
Georges Pire
“for his efforts to help refugees to leave their camps and return to a life of freedom and dignity”

1957
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957
Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee
“for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957
Lord (Alexander R.) Todd
“for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957
Daniel Bovet
“for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1957
Albert Camus
“for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1957
Lester Bowles Pearson
“for his crucial contribution to the deployment of a United Nations Emergency Force in the wake of the Suez Crisis”

1956
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov
“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards
“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1956
Juan Ramón Jiménez
“for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1956
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1955
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955
Willis Eugene Lamb
“for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum”

Polykarp Kusch
“for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955
Vincent du Vigneaud
“for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955
Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell
“for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1955
Halldór Kiljan Laxness
“for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1955
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1954
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954
Max Born
“for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction”

Walther Bothe
“for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954
Linus Carl Pauling
“for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1954
Ernest Miller Hemingway
“for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1954
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
“for its efforts to heal the wounds of war by providing help and protection to refugees all over the world”

1953
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953
Frits Zernike
“for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953
Hermann Staudinger
“for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Hans Adolf Krebs
“for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

Fritz Albert Lipmann
“for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill
“for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1953
George Catlett Marshall
“for proposing and supervising the plan for the economic recovery of Europe”

1952
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952
Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell
“for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952
Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge
“for their invention of partition chromatography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952
Selman Abraham Waksman
“for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1952
François Mauriac
“for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1952
Albert Schweitzer
“for his altruism, reverence for life, and tireless humanitarian work which has helped making the idea of brotherhood between men and nations a living one”

1951
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
“for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
Edwin Mattison McMillan and Glenn Theodore Seaborg
“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951
Max Theiler
“for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1951
Pär Fabian Lagerkvist
“for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1951
Léon Jouhaux
“for having devoted his life to the fight against war through the promotion of social justice and brotherhood among men and nations”

1950
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950
Cecil Frank Powell
“for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950
Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder
“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950
Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) Russell
“in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1950
Ralph Bunche
“for his work as mediator in Palestine in 1948-1949”

1949
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949
Hideki Yukawa
“for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949
William Francis Giauque
“for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949
Walter Rudolf Hess
“for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949
William Faulkner
“for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1949
Lord (John) Boyd Orr of Brechin
“for his lifelong effort to conquer hunger and want, thereby helping to remove a major cause of military conflict and war”

1948
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948
Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett
“for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius
“for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948
Paul Hermann Müller
“for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948
Thomas Stearns Eliot
“for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1948
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1947
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947
Sir Edward Victor Appleton
“for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947
Sir Robert Robinson
“for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
“for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

Bernardo Alberto Houssay
“for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1947
André Paul Guillaume Gide
“for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1947
Friends Service Council (The Quakers) and American Friends Service Committee (The Quakers)
“for their pioneering work in the international peace movement and compassionate effort to relieve human suffering, thereby promoting the fraternity between nation”

1946
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946
Percy Williams Bridgman
“for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946
James Batcheller Sumner
“for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized”

John Howard Northrop and Wendell Meredith Stanley
“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946
Hermann Joseph Muller
“for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1946
Hermann Hesse
“for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1946
Emily Greene Balch
“for her lifelong work for the cause of peace”

John Raleigh Mott
“for his contribution to the creation of a peace-promoting religious brotherhood across national boundaries”

1945
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945
Wolfgang Pauli
“for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen
“for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey
“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1945
Gabriela Mistral
“for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1945
Cordell Hull
“for his indefatigable work for international understanding and his pivotal role in establishing the United Nations”

1944
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944
Isidor Isaac Rabi
“for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944
Otto Hahn
“for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser
“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1944
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen
“for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1944
Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross)
“for the great work it has performed during the war on behalf of humanity”

1943
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943
Otto Stern
“for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943
George de Hevesy
“for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943
Henrik Carl Peter Dam
“for his discovery of vitamin K”

Edward Adelbert Doisy
“for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1943
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1943
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1942
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1942
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1942
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1942
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1942
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1942
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1941
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1941
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1941
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1941
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1941
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1941
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1940
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1940
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1940
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1940
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1940
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1940
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1939
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939
Ernest Orlando Lawrence
“for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt
“for his work on sex hormones”

Leopold Ruzicka
“for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939
Gerhard Domagk
“for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1939
Frans Eemil Sillanpää
“for his deep understanding of his country’s peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1939
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1938
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938
Enrico Fermi
“for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938
Richard Kuhn
“for his work on carotenoids and vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938
Corneille Jean François Heymans
“for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1938
Pearl Buck
“for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1938
Office international Nansen pour les Réfugiés (Nansen International Office for Refugees)
“for having carried on the work of Fridtjof Nansen to the benefit of refugees across Europe”

1937
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937
Clinton Joseph Davisson and George Paget Thomson
“for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937
Walter Norman Haworth
“for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C”

Paul Karrer
“for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937
Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt
“for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1937
Roger Martin du Gard
“for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1937
Cecil of Chelwood, Viscount (Lord Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne Cecil)
“for his tireless effort in support of the League of Nations, disarmament and peace”

1936
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936
Victor Franz Hess
“for his discovery of cosmic radiation”

Carl David Anderson
“for his discovery of the positron”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936
Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye
“for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936
Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi
“for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1936
Eugene Gladstone O’Neill
“for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1936
Carlos Saavedra Lamas
“for his role as father of the Argentine Antiwar Pact of 1933, which he also used as a means to mediate peace between Paraguay and Bolivia in 1935”

1935
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935
James Chadwick
“for the discovery of the neutron”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935
Frédéric Joliot and Irène Joliot-Curie
“in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935
Hans Spemann
“for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1935
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1935
Carl von Ossietzky
“for his burning love for freedom of thought and expression and his valuable contribution to the cause of peace”

1934
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1934
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934
Harold Clayton Urey
“for his discovery of heavy hydrogen”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1934
Luigi Pirandello
“for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1934
Arthur Henderson
“for his untiring struggle and his courageous efforts as Chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference 1931-34”

1933
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933
Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
“for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1933
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933
Thomas Hunt Morgan
“for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1933
Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin
“for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1933
Sir Norman Angell (Ralph Lane)
“for having exposed by his pen the illusion of war and presented a convincing plea for international cooperation and peace”

1932
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932
Werner Karl Heisenberg
“for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932
Irving Langmuir
“for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian
“for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1932
John Galsworthy
“for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1932
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1931
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1931
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931
Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius
“in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931
Otto Heinrich Warburg
“for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1931
Erik Axel Karlfeldt
“The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1931
Jane Addams and Nicholas Murray Butler
“for their assiduous effort to revive the ideal of peace and to rekindle the spirit of peace in their own nation and in the whole of mankind”

1930
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
“for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930
Hans Fischer
“for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930
Karl Landsteiner
“for his discovery of human blood groups”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1930
Sinclair Lewis
“for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1930
Lars Olof Jonathan (Nathan) Söderblom
“for promoting Christian unity and helping create ‘that new attitude of mind which is necessary if peace between nations is to become reality'”

1929
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929
Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie
“for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929
Arthur Harden and Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin
“for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929
Christiaan Eijkman
“for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
“for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1929
Thomas Mann
“principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1929
Frank Billings Kellogg
“for his crucial role in bringing about the Briand-Kellogg Pact”

1928
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928
Owen Willans Richardson
“for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus
“for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928
Charles Jules Henri Nicolle
“for his work on typhus”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1928
Sigrid Undset
“principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1928
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1927
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927
Arthur Holly Compton
“for his discovery of the effect named after him”

Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
“for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927
Heinrich Otto Wieland
“for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927
Henri Bergson
“in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1927
Ferdinand Buisson and Ludwig Quidde
“for their contribution to the emergence in France and Germany of a public opinion which favours peaceful international cooperation”

1926
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926
Jean Baptiste Perrin
“for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926
The (Theodor) Svedberg
“for his work on disperse systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926
Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger
“for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1926
Grazia Deledda
“for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1926
Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann
“for their crucial role in bringing about the Locarno Treaty”

1925
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925
James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz
“for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy
“for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1925
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1925
George Bernard Shaw
“for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1925
Sir Austen Chamberlain
“for his crucial role in bringing about the Locarno Treaty”

Charles Gates Dawes
“for his crucial role in bringing about the Dawes Plan”

1924
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924
Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn
“for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1924
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924
Willem Einthoven
“for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1924
Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont
“for his great national epic, The Peasants”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1924
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1923
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923
Robert Andrews Millikan
“for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923
Fritz Pregl
“for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923
Frederick Grant Banting and John James Rickard Macleod
“for the discovery of insulin”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1923
William Butler Yeats
“for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1923
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1922
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922
Niels Henrik David Bohr
“for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922
Francis William Aston
“for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Archibald Vivian Hill
“for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

Otto Fritz Meyerhof
“for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922
Jacinto Benavente
“for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1922
Fridtjof Nansen
“for his leading role in the repatriation of prisoners of war, in international relief work and as the League of Nations’ High Commissioner for refugees”

1921
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921
Albert Einstein
“for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921
Frederick Soddy
“for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1921
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921
Anatole France
“in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1921
Karl Hjalmar Branting and Christian Lous Lange
“for their lifelong contributions to the cause of peace and organized internationalism”

1920
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920
Charles Edouard Guillaume
“in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920
Walther Hermann Nernst
“in recognition of his work in thermochemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920
Schack August Steenberg Krogh
“for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920
Knut Pedersen Hamsun
“for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1920
Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois
“for his longstanding contribution to the cause of peace and justice and his prominent role in the establishment of the League of Nations”

1919
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919
Johannes Stark
“for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1919
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919
Jules Bordet
“for his discoveries relating to immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1919
Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler
“in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1919
Thomas Woodrow Wilson
“for his role as founder of the League of Nations”

1918
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
“in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918
Fritz Haber
“for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1918
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1918
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1918
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1917
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917
Charles Glover Barkla
“for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1917
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1917
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1917
Karl Adolph Gjellerup
“for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals”

Henrik Pontoppidan
“for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1917
Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross)
“for the efforts to take care of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war and their families”

1916
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1916
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1916
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1916
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916
Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam
“in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1916
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1915
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915
Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg
“for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915
Richard Martin Willstätter
“for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1915
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1915
Romain Rolland
“as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1915
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1914
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914
Max von Laue
“for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914
Theodore William Richards
“in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914
Robert Bárány
“for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1914
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1914
No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1913
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
“for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913
Alfred Werner
“in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913
Charles Robert Richet
“in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913
Rabindranath Tagore
“because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1913
Henri La Fontaine
“for his unparalleled contribution to the organization of peaceful internationalism”

1912
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912
Nils Gustaf Dalén
“for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912
Victor Grignard
“for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry”

Paul Sabatier
“for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912
Alexis Carrel
“in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1912
Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann
“primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1912
Elihu Root
“for bringing about better understanding between the countries of North and South America and initiating important arbitration agreements between the United States and other countries”

1911
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911
Wilhelm Wien
“for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska
“in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911
Allvar Gullstrand
“for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911
Count Maurice (Mooris) Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck
“in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers’ own feelings and stimulate their imaginations”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1911
Tobias Michael Carel Asser
“for his role as co-founder of the Institut de droit international, initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law (Conférences de Droit international privé) at the Hague, and pioneer in the field of international legal relations”

Alfred Hermann Fried
“for his effort to expose and fight what he considers to be the main cause of war, namely, the anarchy in international relations”

1910
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910
Johannes Diderik van der Waals
“for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910
Otto Wallach
“in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910
Albrecht Kossel
“in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1910
Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse
“as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1910
Bureau international permanent de la Paix (Permanent International Peace Bureau)
“for acting as a link between the peace societies of the various countries, and helping them to organize the world rallies of the international peace movement”

1909
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909
Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun
“in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909
Wilhelm Ostwald
“in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909
Emil Theodor Kocher
“for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909
Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf
“in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1909
Auguste Marie François Beernaert and Paul Henri Benjamin Balluet d’Estournelles de Constant, Baron de Constant de Rebecque
“for their prominent position in the international movement for peace and arbitration”

1908
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908
Gabriel Lippmann
“for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908
Ernest Rutherford
“for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich
“in recognition of their work on immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908
Rudolf Christoph Eucken
“in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1908
Klas Pontus Arnoldson and Fredrik Bajer
“for their long time work for the cause of peace as politicians, peace society leaders, orators and authors”

1907
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907
Albert Abraham Michelson
“for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907
Eduard Buchner
“for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran
“in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1907
Rudyard Kipling
“in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1907
Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
“for his work in the press and in peace meetings, both public and private, for an understanding between France and Italy”

Louis Renault
“for his decisive influence upon the conduct and outcome of the Hague and Geneva Conferences”

1906
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906
Joseph John Thomson
“in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906
Henri Moissan
“in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906
Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal
“in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1906
Giosuè Carducci
“not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1906
Theodore Roosevelt
“for his role in bringing to an end the bloody war recently waged between two of the world’s great powers, Japan and Russia”

1905
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905
Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard
“for his work on cathode rays”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer
“in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905
Robert Koch
“for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1905
Henryk Sienkiewicz
“because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1905
Bertha von Suttner
“for her audacity to oppose the horrors of war”

1904
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904
Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)
“for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904
Sir William Ramsay
“in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
“in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904
Frédéric Mistral
“in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist”

José Echegaray y Eizaguirre
“in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1904
Institut de droit international (Institute of International Law)
“for its striving in public law to develop peaceful ties between nations and to make the laws of war more humane”

1903
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903
Antoine Henri Becquerel
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity”

Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska
“in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903
Svante August Arrhenius
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Niels Ryberg Finsen
“in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1903
Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson
“as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1903
William Randal Cremer
“for his longstanding and devoted effort in favour of the ideas of peace and arbitration”

1902
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman
“in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902
Hermann Emil Fischer
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902
Ronald Ross
“for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1902
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen
“the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1902
Élie Ducommun
“for his untiring and skilful directorship of the Bern Peace Bureau”

Charles Albert Gobat
“for his eminently practical administration of the Inter-Parliamentary Union”

1901
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901
Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901
Emil Adolf von Behring
“for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1901
Sully Prudhomme
“in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Jean Henry Dunant
“for his humanitarian efforts to help wounded soldiers and create international understanding”

Frédéric Passy
“for his lifelong work for international peace conferences, diplomacy and arbitration”





所有诺贝尔奖获得者

从1901年到2021年,诺贝尔奖和纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖共颁发了609次给975名个人和组织。由于有些人获得了不止一次的诺贝尔奖,因此总共有943名个人和25个组织获得了诺贝尔奖。下面,你可以查看诺贝尔奖和诺贝尔奖获得者的完整名单。

2021
2021年诺贝尔物理学奖
"表彰对我们理解复杂系统的突破性贡献"

Syukuro Manabe和Klaus Hasselmann "表彰对地球气候的物理建模,量化变异性和可靠地预测全球变暖"

乔治-帕里西 "表彰他发现了从原子到行星尺度的物理系统中的无序和波动的相互作用"

2021年诺贝尔化学奖
本杰明-利斯特和大卫-麦克米伦 "表彰不对称有机催化的发展"

2021年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
大卫-朱利叶斯和阿尔德姆-帕塔普蒂安 "表彰他们对温度和触觉感受器的发现"

2021年诺贝尔文学奖
阿卜杜拉扎克-古尔纳 "以表彰他对殖民主义的影响和文化与大陆之间鸿沟中的难民命运的不妥协和同情心的渗透"

2021年诺贝尔和平奖
玛丽亚-雷萨和德米特里-穆拉托夫 "为保障言论自由所做的努力,这是民主和持久和平的前提条件"

2021年瑞典央行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
大卫-卡德 "表彰他对劳动经济学的经验性贡献"

Joshua D. Angrist和Guido W. Imbens "表彰他们对因果关系分析的方法学贡献"

2020
2020年诺贝尔物理学奖
罗杰-彭罗斯 "表彰他发现黑洞的形成是广义相对论的一个有力预测"

莱因哈德-根泽尔和安德烈亚-盖茨 "表彰在银河系中心发现了一个超大质量的紧凑物体

2020年诺贝尔化学奖
Emmanuelle Charpentier和Jennifer A. Doudna "为开发一种基因组编辑方法"

2020年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
哈维-J-阿尔特、迈克尔-霍顿和查尔斯-M-赖斯 "因发现丙型肝炎病毒"

2020年诺贝尔文学奖
露易丝-格吕克 "以表彰她以朴素的美使个人的存在具有普遍性的明确无误的诗意的声音"。

2020年诺贝尔和平奖
世界粮食计划署(WFP)"为其抗击饥饿的努力,为其对改善受冲突影响地区的和平条件的贡献,为其在防止利用饥饿作为战争和冲突武器的努力中发挥的推动作用"

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 2020年
保罗-R-米尔格罗姆和罗伯特-B-威尔逊 "为改进拍卖理论和发明新的拍卖格式而获奖"

2019
2019年诺贝尔物理学奖
"以表彰我们对宇宙演化和地球在宇宙中的地位的理解的贡献

詹姆斯-皮布尔斯 "表彰物理宇宙学的理论发现"

米歇尔-马约尔和迪迪埃-克洛兹 "为发现一颗围绕太阳型恒星运行的系外行星"

2019年诺贝尔化学奖
约翰-B-古德诺、M-斯坦利-惠廷安和Akira Yoshino "表彰锂离子电池的开发"

2019年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
小威廉-G-凯林、彼得-J-拉特克利夫爵士和格雷格-L-塞门扎 "表彰他们对细胞如何感知和适应氧气可用性的发现"

2019年诺贝尔文学奖
彼得-汉德克 "以表彰其具有影响力的作品,以语言的独创性探索了人类经验的边缘和特殊性"

2019年诺贝尔和平奖
阿比-艾哈迈德-阿里 "表彰他为实现和平与国际合作所做的努力,特别是他为解决与邻国厄立特里亚的边界冲突而采取的果断举措"

2019年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
阿比吉特-班纳吉、埃斯特-杜弗洛和迈克尔-克雷默 "以表彰他们为减轻全球贫困而采取的实验性方法"

2018
2018年诺贝尔物理学奖
"表彰在激光物理学领域的开创性发明"

阿瑟-阿什金 "表彰光学镊子及其在生物系统中的应用"

热拉尔-穆鲁和唐娜-斯特里克兰 "表彰他们产生高强度、超短光脉冲的方法"

2018年诺贝尔化学奖
弗朗西斯-H-阿诺德 "表彰酶的定向进化"

乔治-P-史密斯和格雷戈里-P-温特爵士 "为多肽和抗体的噬菌体展示"

2018年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
詹姆斯-P-艾利森和本庄太寿
"表彰他们发现通过抑制负面免疫调节来治疗癌症"

2018年诺贝尔文学奖
奥尔加-托卡丘克 "以百科全书式的激情表现了作为生命形式的跨越边界的叙事想象力"

2018年诺贝尔和平奖
丹尼斯-穆克维格和纳迪亚-穆拉德
"以表彰他们为结束将性暴力作为战争和武装冲突的武器所做的努力

2018年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
威廉-D-诺德豪斯 "表彰将气候变化纳入长期宏观经济分析"

保罗-M-罗默 "表彰将技术创新纳入长期宏观经济分析"

2017
2017年诺贝尔物理学奖
莱纳-魏斯、巴里-C-巴里什和基普-S-索恩
"表彰对LIGO探测器和引力波观测的决定性贡献"

2017年诺贝尔化学奖
雅克-杜波切、约阿希姆-弗兰克和理查德-亨德森
"以表彰他们开发了用于高分辨率确定溶液中生物大分子结构的低温电子显微镜" 。

2017年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
杰弗里-C-霍尔、迈克尔-罗斯巴什和迈克尔-W-杨
"表彰他们对控制昼夜节律的分子机制的发现"

2017年诺贝尔文学奖
石黑一雄
"他在具有巨大情感力量的小说中,揭示了我们与世界联系的虚幻感之下的深渊"

2017年诺贝尔和平奖
国际废除核武器运动(ICAN)
"以表彰其提请人们注意任何使用核武器的灾难性人道主义后果的工作,以及其为实现基于条约的禁止这类武器所做的开创性努力"

2017年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
理查德-H-塞勒
"以表彰他对行为经济学的贡献

2016
2016年诺贝尔物理学奖
大卫-J-索尔斯、F-邓肯-M-霍尔丹和J-迈克尔-科斯特里茨
"表彰对拓扑相变和物质拓扑相的理论发现"

2016年诺贝尔化学奖
让-皮埃尔-索瓦格、J-弗雷泽-斯托达特爵士和伯纳德-L-费林加
"用于设计和合成分子机器"

2016年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
大隅良典
"表彰他对自噬机制的发现"

2016年诺贝尔文学奖
鲍勃-迪伦
"表彰他在伟大的美国歌曲传统中创造了新的诗意表达"

2016年诺贝尔和平奖
胡安-曼努埃尔-桑托斯
"表彰他为结束该国超过50年的内战所做的坚定努力"

2016年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
奥利弗-哈特和本特-霍尔姆斯特伦
"表彰他们对契约理论的贡献"

2015
2015年诺贝尔物理学奖
梶田孝明和阿瑟-B-麦克唐纳
"表彰对中微子振荡的发现,表明中微子具有质量"

2015年诺贝尔化学奖
托马斯-林达尔、保罗-莫德里奇和阿齐兹-桑卡尔
"表彰对DNA修复的机理研究"

2015年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
威廉-C-坎贝尔和大村聪
"表彰他们发现了一种针对蛔虫寄生虫引起的感染的新疗法"

屠呦呦
"表彰她发现了一种防治疟疾的新疗法"

2015年诺贝尔文学奖
斯维特拉娜-阿列克谢耶维奇
"为她的多声部作品,这是我们这个时代的痛苦和勇气的纪念碑

2015年诺贝尔和平奖
全国对话四重奏
"以表彰其在2011年茉莉花革命后对突尼斯多元化民主建设的决定性贡献

2015年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
安格斯-迪顿
"表彰他对消费、贫困和福利的分析"

2014
2014年诺贝尔物理学奖
赤崎勇、天野浩和中村修二
"以表彰他发明了高效的蓝光发光二极管,使明亮和节能的白光光源成为可能"

2014年诺贝尔化学奖
埃里克-贝齐格、斯特凡-W-赫尔和威廉-E-莫尔纳
"表彰超分辨荧光显微镜的发展"

2014年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
约翰-奥基夫、梅-布里特-莫泽和爱德华-I-莫泽
"表彰他们发现了构成大脑中定位系统的细胞"

2014年诺贝尔文学奖
帕特里克-莫迪亚诺
"表彰他用记忆的艺术唤起了最难以把握的人类命运,揭开了职业的生命世界"

2014年诺贝尔和平奖
凯拉什-萨蒂亚尔蒂和马拉拉-尤萨夫扎伊
"以表彰他们为反对压制儿童和青年以及为争取所有儿童受教育的权利而进行的斗争"。

2014年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
让-蒂罗
"以表彰他对市场力量和监管的分析

2013
2013年诺贝尔物理学奖
弗朗索瓦-恩格勒特和彼得-W-希格斯
"为在理论上发现一种有助于我们理解亚原子粒子质量起源的机制,并且最近通过欧洲核子研究中心大型强子对撞机的ATLAS和CMS实验发现预测的基本粒子而得到证实"

2013年诺贝尔化学奖
马丁-卡尔普斯、迈克尔-莱维特和阿里耶-瓦谢尔
"表彰为复杂化学系统开发的多尺度模型"

2013年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
詹姆斯-E-罗斯曼、兰迪-W-谢克曼和托马斯-C-苏德福
"以表彰他们发现了调控囊泡交通的机制,这是我们细胞中的一个主要运输系统

2013年诺贝尔文学奖
爱丽丝-门罗
"当代短篇小说的大师"

2013年诺贝尔和平奖
禁止化学武器组织(OPCW)
"因其为消除化学武器所做的广泛努力

2013年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
尤金-F-法玛、拉尔斯-彼得-汉森和罗伯特-J-席勒
"以表彰他们对资产价格的实证分析

2012
2012年诺贝尔物理学奖
谢尔盖-哈罗什和大卫-J-温兰
"以表彰他们采用了开创性的实验方法,实现了对单个量子系统的测量和操控

2012年诺贝尔化学奖
罗伯特-J-莱夫科维茨和布莱恩-K-卡比尔卡
"以表彰对G-蛋白偶联受体的研究

2012年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
约翰-B-格登爵士和山中伸弥
"表彰发现成熟细胞可以被重新编程成为多能细胞"

2012年诺贝尔文学奖
莫言
"他以幻觉般的现实主义手法将民间故事、历史和当代融合在一起

2012年诺贝尔和平奖
欧洲联盟(EU)
"六十多年来为推动欧洲的和平与和解、民主和人权做出了贡献。

2012年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
阿尔文-E-罗斯和劳埃德-S-沙普利
"表彰稳定分配的理论和市场设计的实践"

2011
2011年诺贝尔物理学奖
索尔-珀尔马特、布赖恩-P-施密特和亚当-G-里斯
"以表彰通过观察遥远的超新星发现宇宙的加速膨胀

2011年诺贝尔化学奖
丹-谢赫曼
"以表彰对准晶石的发现

2011年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
布鲁斯-A-贝特勒和朱尔斯-A-霍夫曼
"以表彰他们在激活先天免疫方面的发现

拉尔夫-M-斯坦曼
"以表彰他对树突状细胞的发现及其在适应性免疫中的作用

2011年诺贝尔文学奖
托马斯-特兰斯特罗默
"因为他通过浓缩的、半透明的图像,为我们提供了了解现实的新途径

2011年诺贝尔和平奖
埃伦-约翰逊-瑟利夫、莱伊曼-古博韦和塔瓦克尔-卡曼
"以表彰他们为妇女的安全和妇女充分参与和平建设工作的权利而进行的非暴力斗争

2011年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
托马斯-J-萨金特和克里斯托弗-A-西姆斯
"以表彰他们对宏观经济中因果关系的实证研究

2010
2010年诺贝尔物理学奖
安德烈-盖姆和康斯坦丁-诺沃谢洛夫
"以表彰他们对二维材料石墨烯的突破性实验

2010年诺贝尔化学奖
理查德-F-赫克、根岸英一和铃木明
"表彰在有机合成中的钯催化交叉耦合"

2010年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
罗伯特-G-爱德华兹
"表彰体外受精技术的发展"

2010年诺贝尔文学奖
Mario Vargas Llosa
"以表彰他对权力结构的制图,以及他对个人的抵抗、反抗和失败的敏锐形象" 。

2010年诺贝尔和平奖
刘晓波
"以表彰他在中国为争取基本人权而进行的长期非暴力斗争

2010年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
彼得-A-戴蒙德、戴尔-T-莫滕森和克里斯托弗-A-皮萨里德斯
"以表彰他们对有搜索摩擦的市场的分析

2009
2009年诺贝尔物理学奖
高锟
"以表彰在光通信的光纤传输方面取得的突破性成就

威拉德-S-博伊尔和乔治-E-史密斯
"为发明成像半导体电路--CCD传感器。

2009年诺贝尔化学奖
文卡特拉曼-拉马克里什南、托马斯-A-施泰茨和阿达-E-约纳特
"表彰对核糖体结构和功能的研究"

2009年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
伊丽莎白-H-布莱克本、卡罗尔-W-格雷德和杰克-W-索斯塔克
"为发现染色体如何受到端粒和端粒酶的保护" 。

2009年诺贝尔文学奖
赫塔-穆勒
"他以诗歌的浓缩和散文的坦率,描绘了被剥夺者的风景。

2009年诺贝尔和平奖
巴拉克-H-奥巴马
"以表彰他为加强国际外交和各国人民之间的合作而做出的非凡努力

2009年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
埃莉诺-奥斯特罗姆
"以表彰她对经济治理,特别是对公地的分析

奥利弗-E-威廉姆森
"以表彰他对经济治理的分析,特别是对公司边界的分析

2008
2008年诺贝尔物理学奖
南武洋一郎
"以表彰他发现亚原子物理学中的自发破缺对称性机制

小林诚和马斯川俊秀
"因为发现了破缺对称性的起源,它预示着自然界中至少有三个夸克家族的存在)

2008年诺贝尔化学奖
下村修、马丁-查尔菲和罗杰-Y-齐恩
"表彰发现和开发绿色荧光蛋白GFP"

2008年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
哈罗德-祖尔-豪森
"以表彰他发现了导致宫颈癌的人类乳头瘤病毒

弗朗索瓦丝-巴雷-西努西和吕克-蒙塔尼耶
"以表彰他们对人类免疫缺陷病毒的发现

2008年诺贝尔文学奖
让-玛丽-古斯塔夫-勒克莱齐奥
"新的出发点、诗意的冒险和感性的狂喜的作者,超越和低于统治文明的人类的探索者

2008年诺贝尔和平奖
马尔蒂-阿赫蒂萨里
"以表彰他三十多年来在多个大洲为解决国际冲突所做的重要努力

2008年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
保罗-克鲁格曼
"以表彰他对贸易模式和经济活动地点的分析

2007
2007年诺贝尔物理学奖
阿尔伯特-费特和彼得-格林伯格
"以表彰他发现了巨大的磁电阻

2007年诺贝尔化学奖
格哈德-埃特尔
"以表彰他对固体表面的化学过程的研究

2007年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
马里奥-R-卡佩奇、马丁-J-埃文斯爵士和奥利弗-斯米梯斯
"以表彰他们发现了利用胚胎干细胞在小鼠体内引入特定基因修饰的原则" 。

2007年诺贝尔文学奖
多丽丝-莱辛
"这位女性经验的史诗家,以怀疑主义、火热和远见卓识的力量使分裂的文明受到审视。

2007年诺贝尔和平奖
政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)和阿尔伯特-阿诺德-戈尔(Al Gore Jr.
"以表彰他们努力积累和传播有关人为气候变化的更多知识,并为应对这种变化所需的措施打下基础"

2007年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
列昂尼德-赫尔维茨、埃里克-S-马斯金和罗杰-B-迈尔森
"因为他们奠定了机制设计理论的基础

2006
2006年诺贝尔物理学奖
约翰-C-马瑟和乔治-F-斯莫特
"以表彰他们发现了宇宙微波背景辐射的黑体形式和各向异性。

2006年诺贝尔化学奖
罗杰-D-科恩伯格
"以表彰他对真核生物转录的分子基础的研究

2006年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
安德鲁-Z-福尔和克雷格-C-梅洛
"以表彰他们发现了RNA干扰--通过双链RNA进行的基因沉默。

2006年诺贝尔文学奖
奥尔罕-帕穆克
"他在寻找其家乡城市的忧郁灵魂的过程中,发现了文化冲突和交错的新符号

2006年诺贝尔和平奖
穆罕默德-尤努斯和格拉米银行
"以表彰他们为创造自下而上的经济和社会发展而做出的努力

2006年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
埃德蒙-S-费尔普斯
"以表彰他对宏观经济政策中的跨时权衡的分析

2005
2005年诺贝尔物理学奖
罗伊-J-格劳博
"以表彰他对光学相干性的量子理论的贡献

约翰-L-霍尔和西奥多-W-汉斯奇
"以表彰他们对基于激光的精密光谱学的发展,包括光学频率梳技术的贡献

2005年诺贝尔化学奖
伊夫-肖万、罗伯特-H-格鲁布斯和理查德-R-施罗克
"表彰在有机合成中开发了元合成方法"

2005年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
巴里-J-马歇尔和J-罗宾-沃伦
"以表彰他们发现幽门螺旋杆菌及其在胃炎和消化性溃疡病中的作用

2005年诺贝尔文学奖
哈罗德-品特
"在他的剧作中,他揭开了日常喋喋不休下的悬崖,并强行进入压迫的密室"

2005年诺贝尔和平奖
国际原子能机构(IAEA)和穆罕默德-巴拉迪
"以表彰他们为防止核能被用于军事目的并确保以最安全的方式使用用于和平目的的核能而做出的努力。

2005年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
Robert J. Aumann和Thomas C. Schelling
"通过博弈论分析提高了我们对冲突与合作的理解

2004
2004年诺贝尔物理学奖
大卫-J-格罗斯、H-大卫-波利策和弗兰克-威尔切克
"以表彰在强相互作用理论中发现了渐进自由"

2004年诺贝尔化学奖
亚伦-切查诺弗、阿夫拉姆-赫什科和欧文-罗斯
"为发现泛素介导的蛋白质降解"

2004年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
理查德-阿克塞尔和琳达-B-巴克
"以表彰他们对气味受体和嗅觉系统组织的发现

2004年诺贝尔文学奖
埃尔夫里德-耶利内克
"以表彰她在小说和戏剧中以非凡的语言热情揭示了社会陈词滥调的荒谬性及其征服力的音乐流。

2004年诺贝尔和平奖
旺加里-穆塔-马塔伊
"以表彰她对可持续发展、民主与和平的贡献

2004年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
芬恩-E-基德兰和爱德华-C-普雷斯科特
"以表彰他们对动态宏观经济学的贡献:经济政策的时间一致性和商业周期背后的驱动力量

2003
诺贝尔物理学奖 2003
阿列克谢-A-阿布里科索夫、维塔利-L-金兹伯格和安东尼-J-莱格特
"以表彰对超导体和超流体理论的开创性贡献

2003年诺贝尔化学奖
"表彰对细胞膜通道的发现"

彼得-阿格瑞
"表彰对水通道的发现"

罗德里克-麦金农
"表彰对离子通道的结构和机制研究"

2003年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
保罗-C-劳特伯和彼得-曼斯菲尔德爵士
"表彰他们在磁共振成像方面的发现"

2003年诺贝尔文学奖
约翰-M-科兹
"他以无数的名义描绘了局外人的惊人参与"

2003年诺贝尔和平奖
希林-埃巴迪
"以表彰她对民主和人权的努力。她特别关注为妇女和儿童的权利而进行的斗争" 。

2003年纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖
Robert F. Engle III
"表彰分析具有时变波动性(ARCH)的经济时间序列的方法"

克莱夫-W-J-格兰杰
"表彰对具有共同趋势的经济时间序列的分析方法(协整)"

2002
2002年诺贝尔物理学奖
小雷蒙德-戴维斯和小柴正敏
"以表彰对天体物理学的开创性贡献,特别是对宇宙中微子的探测

里卡多-贾柯尼
"以表彰对天体物理学的开拓性贡献,这些贡献导致了宇宙X射线源的发现)

2002年诺贝尔化学奖
"以表彰对生物大分子的鉴定和结构分析方法的发展

约翰-B-芬恩和田中幸一
"以表彰他们开发了用于生物大分子质谱分析的软解吸电离方法" 。

库尔特-乌斯里希
"以表彰他开发了用于确定溶液中生物大分子三维结构的核磁共振光谱技术" 。

2002年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
悉尼-布伦纳、H-罗伯特-霍维茨和约翰-E-苏尔斯顿
"表彰他们对器官发育和程序性细胞死亡的遗传调节的发现"

2002年诺贝尔文学奖
伊姆雷-凯尔泰斯
"以表彰他的著作在面对历史的野蛮任意性时维护了个人的脆弱经验

2002年诺贝尔和平奖
吉米-卡特
"以表彰他数十年来为寻求国际冲突的和平解决方案、推进民主和人权以及促进经济和社会发展所做的不懈努力

2002年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
丹尼尔-卡尼曼
"因为他将心理学研究的见解融入经济科学,特别是关于人类在不确定情况下的判断和决策"

弗农-L-史密斯
"确立了实验室实验作为经验经济分析的工具,特别是在替代市场机制的研究中。

2001
2001年诺贝尔物理学奖
埃里克-A-康奈尔、沃尔夫冈-凯特勒和卡尔-E-维曼
"以表彰在碱原子的稀薄气体中实现玻色-爱因斯坦凝结,以及对凝结物特性的早期基础研究。

2001年诺贝尔化学奖
威廉-S-诺尔斯和野利良治
"以表彰他们在手性催化的氢化反应方面的工作

K. 巴里-沙普拉斯
"以表彰他在环状催化氧化反应方面的工作

2001年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
利兰-H-哈特威尔、蒂姆-亨特和保罗-M-努斯爵士
"因为他们发现了细胞周期的关键调节器

2001年诺贝尔文学奖
维迪亚达-苏拉杰普拉萨德-奈保尔爵士
"以表彰他将敏锐的叙事和廉洁的审视结合在一起,迫使我们看到被压抑的历史的存在" 。

2001年诺贝尔和平奖
联合国(U.N.)和科菲-安南
"以表彰他们为建立一个更好的组织和更和平的世界所做的工作

2001年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
乔治-A-阿克洛夫、A-迈克尔-斯彭斯和约瑟夫-E-斯蒂格利茨
"以表彰他们对信息不对称的市场的分析

2000
2000年诺贝尔物理学奖
"以表彰其在信息和通信技术方面的基础工作

霍雷斯-I-阿尔费罗夫和赫伯特-克洛梅尔
"为开发用于高速和光电子的半导体异质结构而获奖

杰克-S-基尔比
"因为他参与了集成电路的发明

2000年诺贝尔化学奖
艾伦-J-海格、艾伦-G-麦克迪亚米德和白川秀树
"以表彰他对导电聚合物的发现和开发

2000年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
阿维德-卡尔松、保罗-格林加德和埃里克-R-坎德尔
"以表彰他们在神经系统信号转导方面的发现

2000年诺贝尔文学奖
高行健
"为其具有普遍意义的作品、深刻的见解和语言上的独创性,为中国的小说和戏剧开辟了新的道路

2000年诺贝尔和平奖
金大中
"为他在韩国和整个东亚地区为民主和人权所做的工作,特别是为与朝鲜的和平与和解所做的工作。

2000年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
詹姆斯-J-赫克曼
"以表彰他对选择性样本分析的理论和方法的发展

Daniel L. McFadden
"以表彰他对离散选择分析理论和方法的发展

1999
1999年诺贝尔物理学奖
杰拉尔杜斯-特霍夫特和马蒂纳斯-J.G.韦尔特曼
"以表彰他对物理学中电弱相互作用的量子结构的阐释

1999年诺贝尔化学奖
艾哈迈德-Zewail
"以表彰他利用飞秒光谱学研究化学反应的过渡状态

1999年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
贡特-布洛贝尔
"以表彰他发现蛋白质有内在的信号来控制其在细胞中的运输和定位

1999年诺贝尔文学奖
贡特-格拉斯
"他的黑色寓言故事描绘了被遗忘的历史面貌

1999年诺贝尔和平奖
无国界医生组织
"以表彰该组织在几大洲开展的开创性人道主义工作

1999年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
罗伯特-A-蒙代尔
"以表彰他对不同汇率制度下的货币和财政政策的分析以及他对最佳货币区的分析

1998
1998年诺贝尔物理学奖
Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer 和 Daniel C. Tsui
"以表彰他们发现了一种具有部分带电激发的新形式的量子流体)

1998年诺贝尔化学奖
沃尔特-科恩
"以表彰他对密度函数理论的发展

约翰-A-波普尔
"以表彰他对量子化学计算方法的发展

1998年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
罗伯特-F-弗奇戈特、路易斯-J-伊格纳罗和费里德-穆拉德
"以表彰他们发现一氧化氮是心血管系统的信号分子

1998年诺贝尔文学奖
何塞-萨拉马戈
"他以想象力、同情心和讽刺性的寓言,不断地使我们再次认识到一个难以捉摸的现实。

1998年诺贝尔和平奖
约翰-休谟和大卫-特林布尔
"以表彰他们为寻求北爱尔兰冲突的和平解决方案所做的努力

1998年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
阿玛蒂亚-森
"以表彰他对福利经济学的贡献

1997
1997年诺贝尔物理学奖
朱棣文、克劳德-科恩-塔努吉和威廉-D-菲利普斯
"以表彰他开发了用激光冷却和捕获原子的方法

1997年诺贝尔化学奖
保罗-D-博耶和约翰-E-沃克
"以表彰他们对三磷酸腺苷(ATP)合成的酶学机制的阐释

延斯-C-斯库(Jens C. Skou
"以表彰他们首次发现离子运输酶Na+, K+ -ATP酶" 。

1997年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
斯坦利-B-普西纳
"以表彰他发现了朊病毒--一种新的生物感染原理

1997年诺贝尔文学奖
达里奥-福
"他模仿中世纪的戏子们鞭挞权威,维护受压迫者的尊严"

1997年诺贝尔和平奖
国际禁止地雷运动(ICBL)和乔迪-威廉姆斯
"以表彰他们在禁止和清除杀伤人员地雷方面的工作

1997年纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖
罗伯特-C-默顿和迈伦-S-斯科尔斯
"为确定衍生品价值的新方法

1996
1996年诺贝尔物理学奖
大卫-M-李、道格拉斯-D-奥谢罗夫和罗伯特-C-理查森
"以表彰他们发现了氦-3的超流性

1996年诺贝尔化学奖
小罗伯特-F-库尔、哈罗德-W-克罗托爵士和理查德-E-斯马利
"以表彰他们对富勒烯的发现

1996年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
彼得-C-多尔蒂和罗尔夫-M-辛克纳格尔
"以表彰他们对细胞介导的免疫防御的特异性的发现

1996年诺贝尔文学奖
维斯拉瓦-辛博尔斯卡
"因为他的诗歌以讽刺的方式精确地让历史和生物背景在人类现实的碎片中显现出来。

1996年诺贝尔和平奖
卡洛斯-菲利普-希门尼斯-贝洛和何塞-拉莫斯-奥尔塔
"以表彰他们为公正、和平地解决东帝汶的冲突所做的工作

1996年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
詹姆斯-A-米尔利斯和威廉-维克雷
"以表彰他们对不对称信息下激励机制的经济理论的根本贡献

1995
1995年诺贝尔物理学奖
"以表彰对轻子物理学的开创性实验贡献

马丁-L-珀尔
"因为发现了陶氏轻子

弗雷德里克-雷恩斯
"表彰对中微子的探测"

1995年诺贝尔化学奖
保罗-J-克鲁岑、马里奥-J-莫利纳和F-舍伍德-罗兰德
"以表彰他们在大气化学方面的工作,特别是关于臭氧的形成和分解"

1995年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
爱德华-B-刘易斯、克里斯蒂安-纽斯莱恩-沃尔哈德和埃里克-F-威斯豪斯
"以表彰他们对早期胚胎发育的基因控制的发现

1995年诺贝尔文学奖
西默斯-希尼
"以表彰具有抒情美和伦理深度的作品,这些作品赞扬了日常的奇迹和活生生的过去。

1995年诺贝尔和平奖
约瑟夫-罗特布拉特和帕格沃什科学与世界事务会议
"以表彰他们为减少核武器在国际政治中的作用以及从长远来看为消除这种武器所做的努力

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 1995年
小罗伯特-E-卢卡斯。
"因为他提出并应用了理性预期的假说,从而改变了宏观经济分析,加深了我们对经济政策的理解"

1994
1994年诺贝尔物理学奖
"以表彰他对发展中子散射技术研究凝聚态物质的开创性贡献

伯特伦-N-布洛克豪斯
"为中子光谱学的发展"。

Clifford G. Shull
"为中子衍射技术的发展

1994年诺贝尔化学奖
乔治-A-奥拉
"以表彰他对碳原子化学的贡献

1994年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
阿尔弗雷德-G-吉尔曼和马丁-罗贝尔
"以表彰他们对G蛋白的发现以及这些蛋白在细胞内信号转导中的作用)

1994年诺贝尔文学奖
大江健三郎
"他以诗意的力量创造了一个想象中的世界,在那里,生活和神话浓缩成一幅令人不安的当今人类困境的画面

1994年诺贝尔和平奖
亚西尔-阿拉法特、希蒙-佩雷斯和伊扎克-拉宾
"以表彰他们在中东地区创造和平的努力

1994年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
约翰-C-哈桑尼、小约翰-F-纳什和莱因哈德-塞尔滕
"以表彰他们在非合作博弈理论中对均衡的开创性分析

1993
1993年诺贝尔物理学奖
Russell A. Hulse和Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
"以表彰他们发现了一种新型的脉冲星,这一发现为引力的研究提供了新的可能性

1993年诺贝尔化学奖
"以表彰对基于DNA的化学方法发展的贡献

卡里-B-穆利斯
"以表彰他发明的聚合酶链式反应(PCR)方法

迈克尔-史密斯
"为他对建立基于寡核苷酸的定点诱变及其在蛋白质研究中的发展做出的根本贡献

1993年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
理查德-J-罗伯茨和菲利普-A-夏普
"以表彰他们对分裂基因的发现

1993年诺贝尔文学奖
托尼-莫里森
"他的小说具有远见卓识和诗意,为美国现实的一个重要方面赋予了生命"

1993年诺贝尔和平奖
纳尔逊-曼德拉和弗雷德里克-威廉-德克勒克
"以表彰他们为和平结束种族隔离制度以及为新的民主南非奠定基础所做的工作

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 1993年
Robert W. Fogel和Douglass C. North
"因为他们通过应用经济理论和定量方法来解释经济和制度的变化,从而更新了经济史的研究"

1992
1992年诺贝尔物理学奖
乔治-查尔帕克
"以表彰他对粒子探测器的发明和发展,特别是多线比例室的发明和发展

1992年诺贝尔化学奖
鲁道夫-A-马库斯
"以表彰他对化学系统中电子转移反应理论的贡献

1992年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
埃德蒙-H-费舍尔和埃德温-G-克雷布斯
"以表彰他们发现可逆的蛋白质磷酸化作为一种生物调节机制

1992年诺贝尔文学奖
德里克-沃尔科特
"以表彰在历史眼光的支持下,在多元文化的承诺下,创作出了具有巨大光辉的诗歌作品

1992年诺贝尔和平奖
里戈维塔-门丘-图姆
"因为她在尊重原住民权利的基础上为社会正义和民族文化和解而奋斗

1992年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
加里-S-贝克尔
"以表彰他将微观经济分析的领域扩展到广泛的人类行为和互动,包括非市场行为

1991
1991年诺贝尔物理学奖
皮埃尔-吉列-德-热内
"以表彰他发现为研究简单系统的秩序现象而开发的方法可以推广到更复杂的物质形式,特别是液晶和聚合物"

1991年诺贝尔化学奖
理查德-R-恩斯特
"以表彰他对发展高分辨率核磁共振(NMR)光谱学方法的贡献

1991年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
埃尔温-内尔和伯特-萨克曼
"以表彰他们对细胞内单一离子通道功能的发现

1991年诺贝尔文学奖
纳丁-戈迪默
"她通过其宏伟的史诗性写作--用阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的话说--为人类带来了极大的益处

1991年诺贝尔和平奖
昂山素季
"以表彰她为争取民主和人权而进行的非暴力斗争

1991年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
罗纳德-H-科斯
"因为他发现并澄清了交易成本和产权对经济的制度结构和运作的重要性

1990
1990年诺贝尔物理学奖
杰罗姆-I-弗里德曼、亨利-W-肯德尔和理查德-E-泰勒
"以表彰他们对电子在质子和束缚中子上的深层非弹性散射的开拓性研究,这对粒子物理学中夸克模型的发展具有至关重要的意义"

1990年诺贝尔化学奖
埃利亚斯-詹姆斯-科里
"以表彰他对有机合成的理论和方法的发展

1990年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
约瑟夫-E-默里和E-唐纳尔-托马斯
"以表彰他们在治疗人类疾病方面的器官和细胞移植的发现

1990年诺贝尔文学奖
奥克塔维奥-帕斯
"以表彰具有广阔视野的激情写作,其特点是感性的智慧和人文的完整"。

1990年诺贝尔和平奖
米哈伊尔-谢尔盖耶维奇-戈尔巴乔夫
"以表彰他在和平进程中的领导作用,该进程是当今国际社会的重要组成部分

1990年瑞典皇家银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖
哈利-M-马科维茨、默顿-H-米勒和威廉-F-夏普
"以表彰他们在金融经济学理论方面的开创性工作

1989
诺贝尔物理学奖 1989
诺曼-F-拉姆齐
"为发明分离震荡场方法并将其应用于氢原子仪和其他原子钟"

汉斯-G-德梅尔特和沃尔夫冈-保罗
"因为开发了离子阱技术"

1989年诺贝尔化学奖
西德尼-奥特曼和托马斯-R-切赫
"因为他们发现了RNA的催化特性

1989年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
J. 迈克尔-毕晓普和哈罗德-E-瓦默斯
"以表彰他们发现了逆转录病毒致癌基因的细胞来源

1989年诺贝尔文学奖
卡米洛-何塞-塞拉
"以表彰丰富而深入的散文,它以克制的同情心形成了对人类脆弱性的挑战。

1989年诺贝尔和平奖
第十四世达赖喇嘛(丹增嘉措)
"倡导基于宽容和相互尊重的和平解决方案,以保护其人民的历史和文化遗产。

1989年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
特里格夫-哈维尔莫
"以表彰他对计量经济学的概率理论基础的澄清和对同步经济结构的分析

1988
1988年诺贝尔物理学奖
莱昂-M-莱德曼、梅尔文-施瓦茨和杰克-斯坦伯格
"以表彰中微子束方法和通过发现μ介子中微子而证明轻子的双子结构

1988年诺贝尔化学奖
约翰-德森霍夫、罗伯特-胡贝尔和哈特穆特-米歇尔
"因为确定了光合作用反应中心的三维结构

1988年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
詹姆斯-W-布莱克爵士、格特鲁德-B-埃利安和乔治-H-希钦斯
"因为他们发现了药物治疗的重要原则

1988年诺贝尔文学奖
纳吉布-马赫福兹
"他通过丰富的细微差别的作品--现在是清晰的现实主义,现在是令人回味的模糊性--形成了适用于全人类的阿拉伯叙事艺术"

1988年诺贝尔和平奖
联合国维持和平部队
"为防止武装冲突并为谈判创造条件"

1988年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
莫里斯-阿莱
"以表彰他对市场和资源有效利用理论的开创性贡献

1987
1987年诺贝尔物理学奖
J. 乔治-贝德诺尔茨和K-亚历山大-穆勒
"以表彰他们在发现陶瓷材料的超导性方面的重要突破

1987年诺贝尔化学奖
唐纳德-J-克拉姆、让-玛丽-雷恩和查尔斯-J-佩德森
"以表彰他们对具有高选择性的特定结构相互作用的分子的开发和使用

1987年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
利根川进(Susumu Tonegawa)
"以表彰他发现了产生抗体多样性的遗传原理)

1987年诺贝尔文学奖
约瑟夫-布罗茨基
"以表彰他的全面的著作,充满了清晰的思想和强烈的诗意

1987年诺贝尔和平奖
奥斯卡-阿里亚斯-桑切斯
"以表彰他为中美洲的持久和平所做的工作

1987年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
罗伯特-M-索洛
"以表彰他对经济增长理论的贡献

1986
1986年诺贝尔物理学奖
恩斯特-罗斯卡
"以表彰他在电子光学方面的基本工作,以及设计了第一台电子显微镜。

格尔德-宾尼格和海因里希-罗勒
"以表彰他们设计的扫描隧道显微镜

1986年诺贝尔化学奖
Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee和John C. Polanyi
"以表彰他们对化学基本过程的动力学的贡献

1986年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
斯坦利-科恩和丽塔-莱维-蒙塔尔奇尼
"以表彰他们对生长因子的发现

1986年诺贝尔文学奖
沃勒-索因卡
"以广泛的文化视角和诗意的色彩塑造了生存的戏剧"

1986年诺贝尔和平奖
埃利-威塞尔
"作为人类的信使:他的信息是和平、赎罪和尊严的信息

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 1986年
小詹姆斯-M-布坎南
"以表彰他对经济和政治决策理论的契约和宪法基础的发展

1985
1985年诺贝尔物理学奖
克劳斯-冯-克里琴
"以表彰他发现了量子化霍尔效应

1985年诺贝尔化学奖
赫伯特-A-豪普曼和杰罗姆-卡勒
"以表彰他们在开发确定晶体结构的直接方法方面的杰出成就

1985年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
迈克尔-S-布朗和约瑟夫-L-戈德斯坦
"以表彰他们在胆固醇代谢调节方面的发现

1985年诺贝尔文学奖
克劳德-西蒙
"在他的小说中结合了诗人和画家的创造力,在描述人类状况时加深了对时间的认识"

1985年诺贝尔和平奖
国际防止核战争医师协会
"因为他传播了权威的信息,并使人们认识到核战争的灾难性后果

瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖 1985年
弗朗哥-莫迪里阿尼
"以表彰他对储蓄和金融市场的开创性分析

1984
1984年诺贝尔物理学奖
卡洛-鲁比亚和西蒙-范德梅尔
"以表彰他们对大型项目的决定性贡献,该项目导致发现了场粒子W和Z,即弱相互作用的传播者。

1984年诺贝尔化学奖
罗伯特-布鲁斯-梅里菲尔德
"以表彰他开发了在固体基质上进行化学合成的方法

1984年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
尼尔斯-K-耶尔内、乔治-J-F-科勒和凯撒-米尔斯坦
"以表彰关于免疫系统发育和控制的特异性理论以及发现单克隆抗体的生产原理

1984年诺贝尔文学奖
雅罗斯拉夫-塞弗特
"因为他的诗歌被赋予了清新、感性和丰富的创造力,为人类不屈不挠的精神和多才多艺提供了一个解放的形象。

1984年诺贝尔和平奖
德斯蒙德-姆皮罗-图图
"以表彰他在解决南非种族隔离问题的非暴力运动中所发挥的统一领导作用" 。

1984年纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖
理查德-斯通
"因其对国民账户体系的发展做出了根本性的贡献,从而大大改善了经验经济分析的基础

1983
1983年诺贝尔物理学奖
苏布拉马扬-钱德拉塞卡
"以表彰他对恒星结构和演变的重要物理过程的理论研究

威廉-阿尔弗雷德-福勒
"以表彰他对宇宙中化学元素形成过程中的重要核反应的理论和实验研究

1983年诺贝尔化学奖
亨利-陶贝
"以表彰他对电子转移反应机制的研究,特别是在金属复合物中的研究

1983年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
芭芭拉-麦克林托克
"以表彰她对移动遗传元素的发现

1983年诺贝尔文学奖
威廉-戈尔丁
"以表彰他的小说以现实主义叙事艺术的敏锐性和神话的多样性和普遍性,照亮了当今世界的人类状况"

1983年诺贝尔和平奖
莱赫-瓦文萨
"为在波兰争取自由工会和人权的非暴力斗争"。

1983年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
杰拉德-德布勒
"以表彰他将新的分析方法纳入经济理论并对一般均衡理论进行了严格的重新表述

1982
1982年诺贝尔物理学奖
肯尼斯-G-威尔逊
"以表彰他与相变有关的临界现象的理论

1982年诺贝尔化学奖
亚伦-克鲁格
"以表彰他对结晶学电子显微镜的发展以及他对具有重要生物学意义的核酸-蛋白质复合物的结构阐释

1982年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
苏妮-K-贝格斯特伦、本特-I-塞缪尔森和约翰-R-维恩
"以表彰他们对前列腺素和相关生物活性物质的发现

1982年诺贝尔文学奖
加布里埃尔-加西亚-马尔克斯
"以表彰他的小说和短篇小说,在这些作品中,梦幻与现实相结合,形成了一个丰富的想象世界,反映了一个大陆的生活和冲突" 。

1982年诺贝尔和平奖
阿尔瓦-米尔达尔和阿方索-加西亚-罗伯斯
"以表彰他们对裁军和无核区及无武器区的工作

1982年纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖
乔治-J-斯蒂格勒
"以表彰他对产业结构、市场运作以及公共管理的原因和影响的开创性研究

1981
1981年诺贝尔物理学奖
尼古拉斯-布洛姆贝根和阿瑟-伦纳德-肖洛
"以表彰他们对激光光谱学发展的贡献

凯-M-西格巴恩
"以表彰他对发展高分辨率电子光谱学的贡献

1981年诺贝尔化学奖
福井健一和罗尔德-霍夫曼
"以表彰他们独立发展的关于化学反应过程的理论

1981年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
罗杰-W-斯佩里
"以表彰他对大脑半球的功能专业化的发现

大卫-H-胡贝尔和托尔斯滕-N-维塞尔
"以表彰他们在视觉系统信息处理方面的发现

1981年诺贝尔文学奖
埃利亚斯-卡内蒂
"以表彰以广阔的视野、丰富的思想和艺术力量为特点的著作

1981年诺贝尔和平奖
联合国难民事务高级专员办事处(UNHCR)
"为促进难民的基本权利

瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔经济科学奖,1981年
詹姆斯-托宾
"以表彰他对金融市场及其与支出决策、就业、生产和价格关系的分析

1980
1980年诺贝尔物理学奖
詹姆斯-沃森-克罗宁和瓦尔-洛格斯顿-菲奇
"以表彰他在中性K介子的衰变中发现了对基本对称原则的违反" 。

1980年诺贝尔化学奖
保罗-伯格
"以表彰他对核酸生物化学的基本研究,特别是对重组DNA的研究。

沃尔特-吉尔伯特和弗雷德里克-桑格
"以表彰他们在确定核酸中的碱基序列方面的贡献

1980年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
巴鲁杰-贝纳塞拉夫、让-道塞和乔治-D-斯奈尔
"以表彰他们发现了细胞表面由基因决定的、调节免疫反应的结构

1980年诺贝尔文学奖
哲斯瓦夫-米洛什
"他以毫不妥协的敏锐洞察力表达了人类在一个严重冲突的世界中的暴露状况

1980年诺贝尔和平奖
阿道夫-佩雷斯-埃斯基韦尔
"因为他是受压迫人民的灵感来源,特别是在拉丁美洲。

1980年瑞典银行为纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔而设立的经济科学奖
劳伦斯-R-克莱因
"为创建计量经济学模型并应用于经济波动和经济政策的分析而获奖

1979
1979年诺贝尔物理学奖
谢尔顿-李-格拉肖、阿布杜斯-萨拉姆和史蒂芬-温伯格
"以表彰他们对基本粒子之间统一的弱相互作用和电磁相互作用理论的贡献,其中包括对弱中性电流的预测

1979年诺贝尔化学奖
赫伯特-C-布朗和乔治-维蒂希
"以表彰他们将含硼和含磷的化合物分别发展为有机合成的重要试剂

1979年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
阿兰-M-科马克和戈弗雷-N-霍斯菲尔德
"表彰计算机辅助断层扫描的发展"

1979年诺贝尔文学奖
奥德修斯-埃利蒂斯
"以表彰他的诗歌,在希腊传统的背景下,以感性的力量和理智的洞察力描绘了现代人为自由和创造而奋斗的过程

1979年诺贝尔和平奖
特蕾莎修女
"以表彰她为痛苦的人类带来的帮助

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 1979年
西奥多-W-舒尔茨和阿瑟-刘易斯爵士
"以表彰他们对经济发展研究的开创性研究,特别是对发展中国家问题的考虑

1978
1978年诺贝尔物理学奖
皮奥特-列昂尼多维奇-卡皮察
"以表彰他在低温物理学领域的基本发明和发现

阿诺-艾伦-彭齐亚斯和罗伯特-伍德罗-威尔逊
"以表彰他们对宇宙微波背景辐射的发现

1978年诺贝尔化学奖
彼得-D-米切尔
"以表彰他通过提出化学运动理论对理解生物能量转移的贡献

1978年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
沃纳-阿伯、丹尼尔-纳坦斯和汉密尔顿-O-史密斯
"为发现限制性酶及其在分子遗传学问题上的应用。

1978年诺贝尔文学奖
艾萨克-巴舍维斯-辛格
"以表彰他扎根于波兰-犹太文化传统的慷慨叙事艺术,将普遍的人类状况带到了生活中。

1978年诺贝尔和平奖
穆罕默德-安瓦尔-萨达特和梅纳赫姆-贝京
"以表彰他们在1978年共同促成了埃及和以色列之间的和平谈判

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 1978年
赫伯特-A-西蒙
"以表彰他对经济组织内部决策过程的开创性研究

1977
1977年诺贝尔物理学奖
菲利普-沃伦-安德森、内维尔-弗朗西斯-莫特爵士和约翰-哈斯布拉克-范弗莱克
"以表彰他们对磁性和无序系统的电子结构的基本理论研究

1977年诺贝尔化学奖
伊利亚-普里戈金
"以表彰他对非平衡热力学的贡献,特别是对耗散结构理论的贡献

1977年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
罗杰-吉列明和安德鲁-V-沙利
"以表彰他们在大脑肽类激素分泌方面的发现

罗莎琳-雅洛
"以表彰他们开发了肽类激素的放射免疫测定法

1977年诺贝尔文学奖
维森特-阿莱桑德雷
"以表彰其创造性的诗歌写作,照亮了人类在宇宙和当今社会中的状况,同时也代表了西班牙诗歌传统在两次大战之间的伟大复兴

1977年诺贝尔和平奖
国际特赦组织
"表彰全世界对人权的尊重"

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖,1977年
贝尔蒂尔-奥林和詹姆斯-E-米德
"以表彰他们对国际贸易和国际资本流动理论的开拓性贡献

1976
1976年诺贝尔物理学奖
伯顿-里希特和塞缪尔-赵忠庭
"以表彰他们在发现一种新的重质基本粒子方面的开创性工作

1976年诺贝尔化学奖
威廉-N-利普斯科姆
"以表彰他对硼烷结构的研究阐明了化学键的问题)

1976年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
巴鲁克-S-布伦贝格和D-卡尔顿-加伊杜塞克
"以表彰他们对传染病的起源和传播的新机制的发现

1976年诺贝尔文学奖
索尔-贝罗
"以表彰其作品中对人类的理解和对当代文化的微妙分析

1976年诺贝尔和平奖
贝蒂-威廉姆斯和麦瑞德-科里根
"以表彰他们为结束北爱尔兰的暴力冲突而发起的勇敢努力

1976年瑞典银行为纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔而设立的经济科学奖
米尔顿-弗里德曼
"以表彰他在消费分析、货币历史和理论领域的成就以及他对稳定政策的复杂性的证明

1975
1975年诺贝尔物理学奖
艾格-尼尔斯-玻尔、本-罗伊-莫特森和利奥-詹姆斯-雷恩沃特
"以表彰他发现了原子核中集体运动和粒子运动之间的联系,并在此基础上发展了原子核结构的理论

1975年诺贝尔化学奖
约翰-沃库普-康福斯
"以表彰他在酶催化反应的立体化学方面的工作

弗拉基米尔-普罗格
"以表彰他对有机分子和反应的立体化学的研究

1975年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
大卫-巴尔的摩、雷纳托-杜尔贝科和霍华德-马丁-特明
"以表彰他们对肿瘤病毒和细胞遗传物质之间相互作用的发现

1975年诺贝尔文学奖
欧亨尼奥-蒙塔莱
"以表彰他独特的诗歌,以极大的艺术敏感性,在没有幻想的人生观的标志下,诠释了人类的价值"

1975年诺贝尔和平奖
安德烈-德米特里耶维奇-萨哈罗夫
"为他在苏联为人权、裁军和所有国家之间的合作所做的斗争。

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 1975年
列昂尼德-维塔利耶维奇-康托罗维奇和蒂亚林-C-库普曼斯
"以表彰他们对资源优化配置理论的贡献

1974
1974年诺贝尔物理学奖
马丁-赖尔爵士和安东尼-休伊什
"以表彰他们在射电天体物理学方面的开创性研究。莱尔因为他的观察和发明,特别是光圈合成技术,而休伊什因为他在发现脉冲星方面的决定性作用"

1974年诺贝尔化学奖
保罗-J-弗洛里
"以表彰他在大分子物理化学方面的理论和实验的基本成就

1974年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
阿尔伯特-克劳德、克里斯蒂安-德-杜夫和乔治-E-帕莱德
"以表彰他们对细胞的结构和功能组织的发现

1974年诺贝尔文学奖
艾温德-约翰逊
"以表彰为自由服务的、具有远见卓识的土地和时代的叙事艺术

哈利-马丁森
"以表彰捕捉露珠和反映宇宙的著作"

1974年诺贝尔和平奖
塞恩-麦克布赖德
"以表彰他为确保和发展全世界的人权所做的努力

佐藤荣作
"为他对稳定环太平洋地区局势的贡献和签署《核不扩散条约》。

1974年瑞典银行纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的经济科学奖
贡纳尔-米尔达尔和弗里德里希-奥古斯特-冯-哈耶克
"以表彰他们在货币和经济波动理论方面的开创性工作,以及他们对经济、社会和制度现象的相互依存关系的深入分析" 。

1973
1973年诺贝尔物理学奖
利奥-埃萨基和伊瓦尔-吉耶尔
"以表彰他们分别在半导体和超导体的隧道现象方面的实验发现

布莱恩-大卫-约瑟夫森
"以表彰他对通过隧道屏障的超级电流特性的理论预测,特别是那些通常被称为约瑟夫森效应的现象。

1973年诺贝尔化学奖
恩斯特-奥托-费舍尔和杰弗里-威尔金森
"以表彰他们独立完成的关于有机金属,即所谓的三明治化合物的化学的开创性工作

1973年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
卡尔-冯-弗里施、康拉德-洛伦茨和尼古拉斯-丁伯根
"以表彰他们对个人和社会行为模式的组织和诱导的发现

1973年诺贝尔文学奖
帕特里克-怀特
"以表彰其史诗般的心理叙事艺术,为文学引入了一个新大陆

1973年诺贝尔和平奖
亨利-A-基辛格和黎德寿
"以表彰他们于1973年在越南共同谈判达成了停火协议

1973年纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖
瓦西里-列昂惕夫
"以表彰投入产出法的发展及其在重要经济问题上的应用

1972
1972年诺贝尔物理学奖
约翰-巴丁、莱昂-尼尔-库珀和约翰-罗伯特-施里弗
"以表彰他们共同发展的超导理论,通常称为BCS理论

1972年诺贝尔化学奖
安芬森(Christian B. Anfinsen
"以表彰他在核糖核酸酶方面的工作,特别是关于氨基酸序列和生物活性构象之间的联系" 。

斯坦福-莫尔和威廉-H-斯坦恩
"以表彰他们对核糖核酸酶分子活性中心的化学结构和催化活性之间的联系的理解"。

1972年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
杰拉尔德-M-埃德尔曼和罗德尼-R-波特
"因为他们发现了抗体的化学结构

1972年诺贝尔文学奖
海因里希-伯尔
"以表彰他的写作,通过对其时代的广阔视角和敏感的特征描述技巧的结合,为德国文学的复兴做出了贡献"

1972年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。1972年的奖金被分配给了主基金。

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 1972年
约翰-R-希克斯和肯尼斯-J-阿罗
"以表彰他们对一般经济均衡理论和福利理论的开创性贡献

1971
1971年诺贝尔物理学奖
丹尼斯-加博
"以表彰他对全息方法的发明和发展

1971年诺贝尔化学奖
格哈德-赫兹伯格
"以表彰他对分子,特别是自由基的电子结构和几何学知识的贡献

1971年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
厄尔-W-萨瑟兰,Jr.
"以表彰他对荷尔蒙作用机制的发现

1971年诺贝尔文学奖
巴勃罗-聂鲁达
"因为他的诗歌以一种元素力量的作用使一个大陆的命运和梦想变得生动。

1971年诺贝尔和平奖
维利-勃兰特
"为东方和西方之间有意义的对话铺平道路

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 1971年
西蒙-库兹涅茨
"以表彰他以经验为基础对经济增长的解释,使人们对经济和社会结构及发展进程有了新的和更深刻的认识" 。

1970
诺贝尔物理学奖 1970年
汉内斯-奥洛夫-戈斯塔-阿尔芬
"以表彰在磁流体动力学方面的基础工作和发现,并在等离子体物理学的不同部分有了卓有成效的应用

路易斯-欧仁-费利克斯-内尔
"以表彰在反铁磁性和铁磁性方面的基础工作和发现,这些工作导致了在固态物理学方面的重要应用。

1970年诺贝尔化学奖
路易斯-F-莱洛尔
"以表彰他发现糖核苷酸及其在碳水化合物的生物合成中的作用

1970年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
伯纳德-卡茨爵士、乌尔夫-冯-尤勒和朱利叶斯-阿克塞尔罗德
"以表彰他们对神经末梢的体液传递器及其储存、释放和失活机制的发现

1970年诺贝尔文学奖
索尔仁尼琴(Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn)。
"以表彰他对俄罗斯文学不可或缺的传统的道德力量的追求

1970年诺贝尔和平奖
诺曼-E-鲍劳格
"因为他带来了一个有根据的希望--绿色革命

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 1970年
保罗-A-萨缪尔森
"以表彰他通过科学工作发展了静态和动态经济理论,并为提高经济科学的分析水平做出了积极贡献

1969
1969年诺贝尔物理学奖
默里-盖尔-曼
"以表彰他对基本粒子的分类及其相互作用的贡献和发现

1969年诺贝尔化学奖
德里克-H-R-巴顿和奥德-哈塞尔
"以表彰他们对构象概念的发展及其在化学中的应用的贡献

1969年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
马克斯-德尔布吕克、阿尔弗雷德-D-赫尔希和萨尔瓦多-E-卢里亚
"以表彰他们对病毒的复制机制和遗传结构的发现

1969年诺贝尔文学奖
塞缪尔-贝克特
"为他的写作--以小说和戏剧的新形式--在现代人的穷困中获得了升华"

1969年诺贝尔和平奖
国际劳工组织(I.L.O.)
"创立国际立法,确保每个国家的工作条件都有一定的规范。

纪念阿尔弗雷德-诺贝尔的瑞典银行经济科学奖 1969年
拉格纳-弗里施和扬-廷伯根
"以表彰他们开发并应用动态模型来分析经济过程

1968
1968年诺贝尔物理学奖
路易斯-沃尔特-阿尔瓦雷斯
"以表彰他对基本粒子物理学的决定性贡献,特别是发现了大量的共振状态,通过他开发的氢泡室和数据分析技术使之成为可能"

1968年诺贝尔化学奖
拉斯-昂萨格
"以表彰他发现了以其名字命名的相互关系,这对不可逆过程的热力学具有根本意义

1968年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
罗伯特-W-霍利、哈-戈宾德-霍拉纳和马歇尔-W-尼伦伯格
"以表彰他们对遗传密码及其在蛋白质合成中的功能的解释

1968年诺贝尔文学奖
川端康成
"以表彰他在叙事方面的高超技巧,他以极大的感性表现了日本人的思想精髓

1968年诺贝尔和平奖
勒内-卡辛
"以表彰他为确保《联合国宣言》中规定的人的权利而进行的斗争

1967
诺贝尔物理学奖 1967年
汉斯-阿尔布雷希特-贝特
"以表彰他对核反应理论的贡献,特别是他对恒星中能量产生的发现

1967年诺贝尔化学奖
曼弗雷德-艾根、罗纳德-乔治-沃雷福德-诺里什和乔治-波特
"以表彰他们对极快的化学反应的研究,这种反应是通过极短的能量脉冲来扰乱平衡的。

1967年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
拉格纳-格拉尼特、霍尔丹-基弗-哈特林和乔治-瓦尔德
"以表彰他们对眼睛的主要生理和化学视觉过程的发现

1967年诺贝尔文学奖
米格尔-安赫尔-阿斯图里亚斯
"以表彰他深深扎根于拉丁美洲印第安人的民族特征和传统的生动的文学成就。

1967年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1966
1966年诺贝尔物理学奖
阿尔弗雷德-卡斯特勒
"表彰发现和发展研究原子中赫兹共振的光学方法"

1966年诺贝尔化学奖
罗伯特-S-马尔利肯
"以表彰他通过分子轨道法对化学键和分子的电子结构所做的基本工作

1966年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
佩顿-鲁斯
"以表彰他发现了诱发肿瘤的病毒

查尔斯-布伦顿-哈金斯
"以表彰他对前列腺癌荷尔蒙治疗的发现

1966年诺贝尔文学奖
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
"以表彰他以犹太民族生活为主题的具有深刻特征的叙事艺术

内莉-萨克斯
"为她杰出的抒情和戏剧性的写作,以感人的力量诠释了以色列的命运

1966年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给本奖区的特别基金。

1965
1965年诺贝尔物理学奖
友永辛一郎、朱利安-施温格和理查德-P-费曼
"以表彰他们在量子电动力学方面的基本工作,对基本粒子的物理学产生了深远的影响"

1965年诺贝尔化学奖
罗伯特-伯恩斯-伍德沃德
"以表彰他在有机合成艺术方面的杰出成就

1965年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
弗朗索瓦-雅各布、安德烈-卢沃夫和雅克-莫诺
"以表彰他们在酶和病毒合成的遗传控制方面的发现

1965年诺贝尔文学奖
米哈伊尔-亚历山大洛维奇-肖洛霍夫
"以表彰他在《顿河》史诗中表达了俄罗斯人民生活中的一个历史阶段的艺术力量和完整性。

1965年诺贝尔和平奖
联合国儿童基金会(UNICEF)
"以表彰其为加强国家间的团结和缩小富国与穷国之间的差异所做的努力

1964
1964年诺贝尔物理学奖
查尔斯-哈德-汤斯、尼古拉-根纳季耶维奇-巴索夫和亚历山大-米哈伊洛维奇-普罗霍罗夫
"以表彰在量子电子学领域的基础性工作,这些工作导致了基于激光器原理的振荡器和放大器的建造" 。

1964年诺贝尔化学奖
多萝西-克罗夫特-霍奇金
"因为她用X射线技术确定了重要生化物质的结构

1964年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
康拉德-布洛赫和费奥多尔-林恩
"以表彰他们在胆固醇和脂肪酸代谢的机制和调节方面的发现

1964年诺贝尔文学奖
让-保罗-萨特
"以表彰他的作品,该作品思想丰富,充满了自由和追求真理的精神,对我们这个时代产生了深远的影响。

1964年诺贝尔和平奖
小马丁-路德-金
"以表彰他为非洲裔美国人争取民权的非暴力斗争

1963
1963年诺贝尔物理学奖
尤金-保罗-维格纳
"以表彰他对原子核和基本粒子理论的贡献,特别是通过发现和应用基本的对称性原则。

玛丽亚-戈珀特-迈尔和J-汉斯-D-延森
"以表彰他们对核壳结构的发现

1963年诺贝尔化学奖
卡尔-齐格勒和朱利奥-纳塔
"以表彰他们在高分子化学和技术领域的发现

1963年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
约翰-卡鲁-埃克尔斯爵士、阿兰-劳埃德-霍奇金和安德鲁-菲尔丁-赫胥黎
"以表彰他们对神经细胞膜外围和中央部分的兴奋和抑制的离子机制的发现" 。

1963年诺贝尔文学奖
乔戈斯-塞费里斯
"以表彰他对希腊文化世界的深厚感情所激发的杰出的抒情性写作

1963年诺贝尔和平奖
红十字国际委员会(Comité international de la Croix Rouge)和红十字会联盟(Ligue des Sociétés de la Croix-Rouge)。
"为促进《日内瓦公约》的原则和与联合国的合作"

1962
1962年诺贝尔物理学奖
列夫-达维多维奇-兰道
"以表彰他对凝聚态物质,特别是液态氦的开创性理论

1962年诺贝尔化学奖
马克斯-费迪南德-佩鲁兹和约翰-考德利-肯德鲁
"以表彰他们对球状蛋白质结构的研究

1962年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
弗朗西斯-哈里-康普顿-克里克、詹姆斯-杜威-沃森和莫里斯-休-弗雷德里克-威尔金斯
"以表彰他们对核酸分子结构的发现及其对生物体内信息传递的意义

1962年诺贝尔文学奖
约翰-斯坦贝克
"以表彰他的现实主义和富有想象力的作品,这些作品结合了同情的幽默和敏锐的社会洞察力。

1962年诺贝尔和平奖
莱纳斯-卡尔-鲍林
"以表彰他对东西方核军备竞赛的斗争

1961
诺贝尔物理学奖 1961年
罗伯特-霍夫斯塔特
"以表彰他对原子核中电子散射的开创性研究,以及他由此获得的有关核子结构的发现

鲁道夫-路德维希-默斯鲍尔
"以表彰他对伽马辐射的共振吸收的研究,以及他在这方面发现的以他名字命名的效应

1961年诺贝尔化学奖
梅尔文-卡尔文
"以表彰他对植物的二氧化碳同化作用的研究

1961年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
乔治-冯-贝凯西
"以表彰他对耳蜗内刺激的物理机制的发现

1961年诺贝尔文学奖
伊沃-安德里奇
"以表彰他以史诗般的力量描摹了来自其国家历史的主题并描绘了人类的命运

1961年诺贝尔和平奖
达格-哈马舍尔德
"将联合国发展成为一个有效的、建设性的国际组织,能够实现《联合国宪章》中的原则和目标。

1960
1960年诺贝尔物理学奖
唐纳德-阿瑟-格拉塞
"为发明气泡室而获奖

1960年诺贝尔化学奖
威拉德-弗兰克-利比
"以表彰他在考古学、地质学、地球物理学和其他科学分支中使用碳-14测定年龄的方法

1960年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
弗兰克-麦克法兰-伯内特爵士和彼得-布莱恩-梅达瓦
"表彰发现获得性免疫耐受"

1960年诺贝尔文学奖
圣约翰-珀斯
"以表彰他的诗歌的飞翔和令人回味的意象,这些诗歌以富有远见的方式反映了我们这个时代的状况"

1960年诺贝尔和平奖
阿尔伯特-约翰-卢图利
"以表彰他对种族隔离制度的非暴力斗争

1959
1959年诺贝尔物理学奖
埃米利奥-吉诺-塞格雷和欧文-张伯伦
"以表彰他们对反质子的发现

1959年诺贝尔化学奖
Jaroslav Heyrovsky
"以表彰他发现和发展了极谱分析方法

1959年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
塞维罗-奥乔亚和阿瑟-科恩伯格
"以表彰他们发现了核糖核酸和脱氧核糖核酸的生物合成机制

1959年诺贝尔文学奖
萨尔瓦托尔-卡西莫多
"以表彰他的抒情诗,它以古典的火焰表达了我们这个时代的悲惨生活经历。

1959年诺贝尔和平奖
菲利普-J-诺埃尔-贝克
"以表彰他对裁军与和平事业的长期贡献

1958
1958年诺贝尔物理学奖
帕维尔-阿列克谢耶维奇-切伦科夫,伊尔亚-米哈伊洛维奇-弗兰克和伊戈尔-叶夫根尼耶维奇-塔姆
"为发现和解释切伦科夫效应"。

1958年诺贝尔化学奖
弗雷德里克-桑格
"以表彰他对蛋白质结构的研究,特别是对胰岛素结构的研究

1958年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
乔治-韦尔斯-比德尔和爱德华-劳里-塔特姆
"以表彰他们发现基因通过调节明确的化学事件而发挥作用

约书亚-莱德伯格
"以表彰他对基因重组和细菌的遗传物质组织的发现

1958年诺贝尔文学奖
鲍里斯-列昂尼多维奇-帕斯捷尔纳克
"以表彰他在当代抒情诗和伟大的俄罗斯史诗传统领域的重要成就

1958年诺贝尔和平奖
乔治-皮雷
"以表彰他为帮助难民离开难民营,恢复自由和尊严的生活而做出的努力

1957
1957年诺贝尔物理学奖
杨振宁和李宗道(T.D.)
"以表彰他们对所谓奇偶性定律的深入研究,这导致了有关基本粒子的重要发现

1957年诺贝尔化学奖
陶德(Alexander R.)勋爵
"表彰他在核苷酸和核苷酸辅酶方面的工作"

1957年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
丹尼尔-博韦特
"表彰他发现了与抑制某些身体物质的作用有关的合成化合物,特别是它们对血管系统和骨骼肌的作用"

1957年诺贝尔文学奖
阿尔贝-加缪
"以表彰他的重要文学作品,该作品以清晰的洞察力照亮了我们时代的人类良知问题。

1957年诺贝尔和平奖
莱斯特-鲍尔斯-皮尔逊
"以表彰他在苏伊士危机后对部署联合国紧急部队的重要贡献

1956
1956年诺贝尔物理学奖
威廉-布拉德福德-肖克利、约翰-巴丁和沃尔特-豪泽-布拉坦
"以表彰他们对半导体的研究和他们对晶体管效应的发现

1956年诺贝尔化学奖
西里尔-诺曼-辛塞尔伍德爵士和尼古拉-尼古拉耶维奇-谢苗诺夫
"以表彰他们对化学反应机制的研究

1956年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
安德烈-弗雷德里克-库尔南、维尔纳-福斯曼和迪金森-W-理查德
"以表彰他们在心脏导管检查和循环系统病理变化方面的发现

1956年诺贝尔文学奖
胡安-拉蒙-希门尼斯
"以表彰他的抒情诗,它在西班牙语言中构成了高尚精神和艺术纯洁的典范。

1956年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1955
1955年诺贝尔物理学奖
威利斯-尤金-拉姆
"以表彰他对氢气光谱精细结构的发现

波利卡普-库什
"以表彰他对电子磁矩的精确测定

1955年诺贝尔化学奖
文森特-杜-维尼奥
"以表彰他在生物化学上重要的硫化合物方面的工作,特别是首次合成多肽激素的工作

1955年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
阿克塞尔-雨果-西奥多-西奥雷尔
"以表彰他对氧化酶的性质和作用方式的发现

1955年诺贝尔文学奖
哈尔多尔-基尔扬-拉克斯内斯
"以表彰他生动的史诗力量,使冰岛的伟大叙事艺术得到更新

1955年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项部的特别基金。

1954
1954年诺贝尔物理学奖
马克斯-博恩
"表彰他在量子力学方面的基础研究,特别是他对波函数的统计解释"

华特-博特
"以表彰他的巧合法和他在这方面的发现

1954年诺贝尔化学奖
莱纳斯-卡尔-鲍林
"以表彰他对化学键的性质的研究及其在阐明复杂物质结构中的应用

1954年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
约翰-富兰克林-恩德斯、托马斯-哈克尔-韦勒和弗雷德里克-查普曼-罗宾斯
"以表彰他们发现脊髓灰质炎病毒在各种组织培养物中的生长能力

1954年诺贝尔文学奖
欧内斯特-米勒-海明威
"以表彰他对叙事艺术的精通,最近在《老人与海》中的表现,以及他对当代风格的影响。

1954年诺贝尔和平奖
联合国难民事务高级专员办事处(UNHCR)
"因其通过向世界各地的难民提供帮助和保护,努力治愈战争的创伤"

1953
1953年诺贝尔物理学奖
弗里茨-泽尼科
"表彰他对相位对比法的证明,特别是他发明的相位对比显微镜"

1953年诺贝尔化学奖
赫尔曼-施陶丁格
"以表彰他在大分子化学领域的发现

1953年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
汉斯-阿道夫-克雷布斯
"以表彰他对柠檬酸循环的发现

弗里茨-阿尔伯特-利普曼
"因为他发现了辅酶A及其对中间代谢的重要性

1953年诺贝尔文学奖
温斯顿-伦纳德-斯宾塞-丘吉尔爵士
"以表彰他对历史和传记的精通,以及在捍卫崇高的人类价值方面的出色演说。

1953年诺贝尔和平奖
乔治-卡特利特-马歇尔
"因为他提出并监督了欧洲经济复苏的计划

1952
1952年诺贝尔物理学奖
费利克斯-布洛赫和爱德华-米尔斯-珀塞尔
"以表彰他们对核磁精密测量的新方法的开发以及与此相关的发现

1952年诺贝尔化学奖
阿切尔-约翰-波特-马丁和理查德-劳伦斯-米林顿-辛格
"以表彰他们发明的分离色谱法

1952年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
塞尔曼-亚伯拉罕-瓦克斯曼
"因为他发现了链霉素,这是第一种对结核病有效的抗生素。

1952年诺贝尔文学奖
弗朗索瓦-莫里亚克
"以表彰他在其小说中以深刻的精神洞察力和强烈的艺术感染力渗透到人类生活的戏剧性之中

1952年诺贝尔和平奖
阿尔伯特-史怀哲
"为他的利他主义、对生命的敬畏和不知疲倦的人道主义工作,使人与人之间和国家之间的兄弟关系成为一种活生生的理念。

1951
1951年诺贝尔物理学奖
约翰-道格拉斯-考克罗夫特爵士和欧内斯特-托马斯-辛顿-沃尔顿
"以表彰他们在用人工加速的原子粒子进行原子核嬗变方面的开创性工作

1951年诺贝尔化学奖
埃德温-马蒂森-麦克米伦和格伦-西奥多-西博格
"以表彰他们对超铀元素化学的发现

1951年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
马克斯-塞勒
"以表彰他对黄热病和如何防治黄热病的发现

1951年诺贝尔文学奖
帕尔-法比安-拉格奎斯特
"以表彰他在诗歌中努力寻找人类面临的永恒问题的答案的艺术活力和真正的独立思想。

1951年诺贝尔和平奖
莱昂-儒豪
"以表彰他通过促进社会正义和人与人之间的兄弟情谊,将自己的一生献给了反对战争的斗争

1950
诺贝尔物理学奖 1950年
塞西尔-弗兰克-鲍威尔
"以表彰他开发了研究核过程的照相法,以及他用这种方法对介子的发现

1950年诺贝尔化学奖
奥托-保罗-赫尔曼-迪尔斯和库尔特-阿尔德
"以表彰他们发现和发展了二烯合成法

1950年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
爱德华-卡尔文-肯德尔、塔德乌斯-赖希施泰因和菲利普-肖尔特-亨奇
"以表彰他们对肾上腺皮质的激素、其结构和生物效应的发现

1950年诺贝尔文学奖
罗素(Bertrand Arthur William)伯爵
"以表彰他在拥护人道主义理想和思想自由方面的各种重要著作

1950年诺贝尔和平奖
拉尔夫-邦奇
"以表彰他在1948-1949年作为调解人在巴勒斯坦的工作

1949
1949年诺贝尔物理学奖
汤川秀树
"以表彰他在核力理论工作的基础上预测了介子的存在。

1949年诺贝尔化学奖
威廉-弗朗西斯-乔克
"以表彰他在化学热力学领域的贡献,特别是关于物质在极低温度下的行为。

1949年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
沃尔特-鲁道夫-赫斯
"以表彰他发现间脑作为内部器官活动的协调者的功能组织

安东尼奥-卡埃塔诺-德-阿布雷尔-埃加斯-莫尼兹
"以表彰他发现白细胞切除术对某些精神疾病的治疗价值

1949年诺贝尔文学奖
威廉-福克纳
"以表彰他对现代美国小说作出的强有力的和艺术上的独特贡献

1949年诺贝尔和平奖
布雷钦的博伊德-奥尔勋爵(John)
"以表彰他毕生致力于征服饥饿和匮乏,从而帮助消除军事冲突和战争的一个主要原因。

1948
1948年诺贝尔物理学奖
帕特里克-梅纳德-斯图尔特-布莱克特
"以表彰他对威尔逊云室方法的开发,以及他在核物理和宇宙辐射领域的发现

1948年诺贝尔化学奖
阿纳-威廉-考林-蒂塞留斯
"以表彰他对电泳和吸附分析的研究,特别是他对血清蛋白复杂性质的发现

1948年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
保罗-赫尔曼-穆勒
"以表彰他发现滴滴涕作为一种接触性毒药对几种节肢动物的高效作用

1948年诺贝尔文学奖
托马斯-斯特恩斯-艾略特
"以表彰他对当今诗歌作出的杰出的、开创性的贡献

1948年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1947
1947年诺贝尔物理学奖
爱德华-维克多-阿普顿爵士
"以表彰他对高层大气物理学的研究,特别是对所谓阿普尔顿层的发现。

1947年诺贝尔化学奖
罗宾逊爵士
"以表彰他对具有生物重要性的植物产品,特别是生物碱的研究

1947年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
卡尔-费迪南德-科里和格蒂-特雷莎-科里,女,拉德尼茨
"因为他们发现了糖原的催化转化过程

贝尔纳多-阿尔贝托-胡赛
"以表彰他发现脑垂体前叶的激素在糖的代谢中所发挥的作用。

1947年诺贝尔文学奖
安德烈-保罗-纪尧姆-纪德
"以表彰他全面而具有艺术意义的著作,其中以无畏的真理之爱和敏锐的心理洞察力阐述了人类问题和状况

1947年诺贝尔和平奖
公谊会服务委员会(贵格会)和美国公谊会服务委员会(贵格会)。
"以表彰他们在国际和平运动中的开创性工作,以及为减轻人类痛苦而做出的富有同情心的努力,从而促进民族间的友爱。

1946
1946年诺贝尔物理学奖
珀西-威廉斯-布里奇曼
"因为他发明了一种产生极高压力的仪器,并由此在高压物理学领域做出了发现"

1946年诺贝尔化学奖
詹姆斯-巴切尔-萨姆纳
"因为他发现酶可以被结晶

约翰-霍华德-诺斯罗普和温德尔-梅雷迪思-斯坦利
"以表彰他们对酶和病毒蛋白的纯化制备

1946年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
赫尔曼-约瑟夫-穆勒
"为发现通过X射线辐照产生的突变

1946年诺贝尔文学奖
赫尔曼-黑塞
"以表彰他的灵感之作,这些作品越来越大胆和深入,体现了古典的人道主义理想和高尚的风格。

1946年诺贝尔和平奖
艾米莉-格林-巴尔奇
"以表彰她为和平事业所做的毕生努力

约翰-罗利-莫特
"以表彰他对创建一个跨越国界的促进和平的宗教兄弟关系的贡献

1945
1945年诺贝尔物理学奖
沃尔夫冈-鲍里
以表彰他发现了 "排除原理",也叫 "保利原理"。

1945年诺贝尔化学奖
阿图里-伊尔马里-维尔塔宁
"以表彰他在农业和营养化学方面的研究和发明,特别是他的饲料保存方法。

1945年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
亚历山大-弗莱明爵士、恩斯特-鲍里斯-链和霍华德-沃尔特-弗洛里爵士
"为发现青霉素及其对各种传染病的治疗作用"

1945年诺贝尔文学奖
加芙列拉-米斯特拉尔
"以表彰她的抒情诗,在强烈的情感激励下,使她的名字成为整个拉丁美洲世界理想主义愿望的象征。

1945年诺贝尔和平奖
科德尔-赫尔
"以表彰他为国际理解所做的不懈努力以及他在建立联合国方面的关键作用

1944
1944年诺贝尔物理学奖
伊西多尔-艾萨克-拉比
"以表彰他用共振法记录原子核的磁特性

1944年诺贝尔化学奖
奥托-哈恩
"以表彰他发现了重核的裂变

1944年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
约瑟夫-埃兰格和赫伯特-斯宾塞-加塞尔
"以表彰他们对单根神经纤维的高度分化功能的发现

1944年诺贝尔文学奖
约翰内斯-维尔赫姆-延森
"以表彰他罕见的强大和丰富的诗歌想象力,其中结合了广泛的知识性好奇心和大胆、新鲜的创造性风格

1944年诺贝尔和平奖
红十字国际委员会(Comité international de la Croix Rouge)
"以表彰它在战争期间为人类所做的伟大工作

1943
1943年诺贝尔物理学奖
奥托-斯特恩
"以表彰他对发展分子射线法的贡献以及他对质子磁矩的发现

1943年诺贝尔化学奖
乔治-德-赫维西
"以表彰他在研究化学过程中使用同位素作为示踪剂的工作

1943年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
亨利克-卡尔-彼得-达姆
"以表彰他对维生素K的发现

爱德华-阿德尔伯特-多西
"因为他发现了维生素K的化学性质

1943年诺贝尔文学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1943年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1942
诺贝尔物理学奖 1942年
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1942年诺贝尔化学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1942年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

诺贝尔文学奖 1942年
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1942年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1941
诺贝尔物理学奖 1941年
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1941年诺贝尔化学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1941年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

诺贝尔文学奖 1941年
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1941年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1940
诺贝尔物理学奖 1940年
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1940年诺贝尔化学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1940年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1940年诺贝尔文学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1940年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1939
1939年诺贝尔物理学奖
欧内斯特-奥兰多-劳伦斯
"为发明和发展回旋加速器以及用它取得的成果,特别是在人造放射性元素方面。

1939年诺贝尔化学奖
阿道夫-弗里德里希-约翰-布滕南特
"以表彰他在性激素方面的工作

利奥波德-鲁齐卡
"表彰他在多甲基和高级萜类化合物方面的工作"

1939年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
格哈德-多马格克
"为发现普隆托西的抗菌作用

1939年诺贝尔文学奖
弗朗斯-埃米尔-西兰帕(Frans Eemil Sillanpä
"以表彰他对本国农民的深刻理解,以及他对他们的生活方式和他们与自然的关系的精湛艺术描绘。

1939年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1938
1938年诺贝尔物理学奖
恩里科-费米
"因为他证明了由中子辐照产生的新的放射性元素的存在,以及他对由慢中子带来的核反应的相关发现。

1938年诺贝尔化学奖
理查德-库恩
"以表彰他在类胡萝卜素和维生素方面的工作

1938年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
科尼耶-让-弗朗索瓦-海曼斯
"表彰他发现静脉窦和主动脉机制在呼吸调节中的作用"

1938年诺贝尔文学奖
珍珠-巴克
"以表彰她对中国农民生活的丰富和真正的史诗般的描述以及她的传记杰作

1938年诺贝尔和平奖
南森国际难民事务办公室(Office international Nansen pour les Réfugiés)
"因为她继承了弗里德约夫-南森的工作,使整个欧洲的难民受益。

1937
1937年诺贝尔物理学奖
克林顿-约瑟夫-戴维森和乔治-佩吉特-汤姆森
"以表彰他们在实验中发现晶体对电子的衍射现象

1937年诺贝尔化学奖
沃尔特-诺曼-霍沃斯
"以表彰他对碳水化合物和维生素C的研究

保罗-卡雷尔
"以表彰他对类胡萝卜素、黄素以及维生素A和B2的研究

1937年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
阿尔伯特-冯-森特-乔吉-纳吉拉波尔特
"以表彰他在生物燃烧过程中的发现,特别是在维生素C和富马酸的催化作用方面的成就

1937年诺贝尔文学奖
罗杰-马丁-杜加尔
"以表彰他在其小说系列Les Thibault中对人类冲突以及当代生活的一些基本方面的艺术力量和真实描述

1937年诺贝尔和平奖
切尔伍德的塞西尔,子爵(埃德加-阿尔杰农-罗伯特-加斯科因-塞西尔勋爵)
"以表彰他在支持国际联盟、裁军与和平方面的不懈努力

1936
1936年诺贝尔物理学奖
维克多-弗朗茨-赫斯
"以表彰他对宇宙辐射的发现

卡尔-大卫-安德森
"以表彰他对正电子的发现

1936年诺贝尔化学奖
佩特鲁斯-约瑟夫-威廉姆斯-德拜
"以表彰他通过对偶极矩和X射线及电子在气体中的衍射的研究对我们的分子结构知识的贡献

1936年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
亨利-哈雷特-戴尔爵士和奥托-罗维
"以表彰他们在神经冲动的化学传递方面的发现

1936年诺贝尔文学奖
尤金-格拉德斯通-奥尼尔
"以表彰他的戏剧作品的力量、诚实和深沉的情感,这些作品体现了一种原创的悲剧概念

1936年诺贝尔和平奖
卡洛斯-萨维德拉-拉马斯
"以表彰他作为1933年《阿根廷反战条约》之父的作用,他还利用该条约作为1935年巴拉圭和玻利维亚之间和平的调停手段"

1935
1935年诺贝尔物理学奖
詹姆斯-查德威克
"因为发现了中子"

1935年诺贝尔化学奖
弗雷德里克-约里奥和伊雷娜-约里奥-居里
"以表彰他们对新的放射性元素的合成

1935年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
汉斯-斯佩曼
"以表彰他发现了胚胎发育中的组织者效应

1935年诺贝尔文学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1935年诺贝尔和平奖
卡尔-冯-奥西茨基
"以表彰他对思想和表达自由的炽热热爱以及对和平事业的宝贵贡献

1934
1934年诺贝尔物理学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1934年诺贝尔化学奖
哈罗德-克莱顿-乌瑞
"以表彰他对重氢的发现

1934年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
乔治-霍伊特-惠普尔、乔治-理查德-米诺特和威廉-帕里-墨菲
"表彰他们在贫血症的肝脏治疗方面的发现"

1934年诺贝尔文学奖
路易吉-皮兰德娄
"以表彰他对戏剧和舞台艺术大胆而巧妙的复兴

1934年诺贝尔和平奖
阿瑟-亨德森
"以表彰他作为1931-34年国际联盟裁军会议主席的不懈奋斗和勇敢努力

1933
1933年诺贝尔物理学奖
欧文-薛定谔和保罗-阿德里安-莫里斯-狄拉克
"以表彰他们发现了新的原子理论的生产形式

1933年诺贝尔化学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金的1/3分配给主基金,2/3分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1933年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
托马斯-亨特-摩根
"以表彰他对染色体在遗传中的作用的发现。

1933年诺贝尔文学奖
伊万-阿列克谢耶维奇-布宁
"以表彰他在散文写作中继承了俄罗斯古典传统的严格艺术性

1933年诺贝尔和平奖
诺曼-安格尔爵士(拉尔夫-莱恩)
"因为他用笔揭露了战争的假象,并为国际合作与和平提出了令人信服的呼吁。

1932
1932年诺贝尔物理学奖
维尔纳-卡尔-海森堡
"因为他创立了量子力学,其应用除其他外导致发现了氢的各向异性形式

1932年诺贝尔化学奖
欧文-朗缪尔
"以表彰他在表面化学方面的发现和研究

1932年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
查尔斯-斯科特-谢林顿爵士和埃德加-道格拉斯-阿德里安
"以表彰他们对神经元功能的发现

1932年诺贝尔文学奖
约翰-加尔斯沃西
"以表彰他在《福尔赛特传奇》中表现出的杰出的叙事艺术。

1932年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给本奖区的特别基金。

1931
诺贝尔物理学奖 1931年
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给本奖区的特别基金。

1931年诺贝尔化学奖
卡尔-博世和弗里德里希-贝吉乌斯
"以表彰他们对发明和发展化学高压方法的贡献" 。

1931年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
奥托-海因里希-沃伯格
"以表彰他对呼吸酶的性质和作用方式的发现

1931年诺贝尔文学奖
埃里克-阿克塞尔-卡尔费尔特
"埃里克-阿克塞尔-卡尔费尔特的诗歌"

1931年诺贝尔和平奖
简-亚当斯和尼古拉斯-默里-巴特勒
"以表彰他们为恢复和平理想和重新点燃本国及全人类的和平精神所做的不懈努力

1930
1930年诺贝尔物理学奖
钱德拉塞卡拉-文卡塔-拉曼爵士
"以表彰他在光的散射方面的工作和发现以他名字命名的效应

1930年诺贝尔化学奖
汉斯-费舍尔
"以表彰他对血红素和叶绿素构成的研究,特别是他对血红素的合成。

1930年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
卡尔-兰德斯坦纳
"因为他发现了人类的血型

1930年诺贝尔文学奖
辛克莱尔-刘易斯
"以表彰他充满活力和形象的描述艺术,以及他以机智和幽默创造新类型人物的能力。

1930年诺贝尔和平奖
拉尔斯-奥洛夫-乔纳森(内森)-索德布隆
"以表彰他促进基督教团结并帮助创造'如果国家间的和平要成为现实,就必须有新的思想态度'"

1929
1929年诺贝尔物理学奖
路易-维克多-皮埃尔-雷蒙德-德布罗格利王子
"因为他发现了电子的波性

1929年诺贝尔化学奖
阿瑟-哈登和汉斯-卡尔-奥古斯特-西蒙-冯-欧拉-谢尔宾
"以表彰他们对糖的发酵和发酵酶的研究

1929年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
克里斯蒂安-艾克曼
"以表彰他发现了抗尿毒症的维生素

弗雷德里克-高兰-霍普金斯爵士
"以表彰他发现了刺激生长的维生素

1929年诺贝尔文学奖
托马斯-曼
"主要表彰他的伟大小说《巴登布鲁克斯》,该小说作为当代文学的经典作品之一赢得了稳步增长的认可。

1929年诺贝尔和平奖
弗兰克-比林斯-凯洛格
"以表彰他在促成《布里安-凯洛格条约》中的关键作用

1928
1928年诺贝尔物理学奖
欧文-威兰斯-理查森
"以表彰他在热离子现象方面的工作,特别是以他的名字命名的规律的发现。

1928年诺贝尔化学奖
阿道夫-奥托-莱因霍尔德-温达斯
"以表彰他对甾醇的构成及其与维生素的关系所做的研究。

1928年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
查尔斯-儒勒-亨利-尼科尔
"以表彰他对斑疹伤寒的研究工作

1928年诺贝尔文学奖
西格丽德-翁塞特
"主要表彰她对中世纪北方生活的有力描述"

1928年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1927
1927年诺贝尔物理学奖
阿瑟-霍利-康普顿
"因为他发现了以他名字命名的效应"

查尔斯-汤姆森-里斯-威尔逊
"以表彰他通过蒸汽的凝结使带电粒子的路径可见的方法

1927年诺贝尔化学奖
海因里希-奥托-维兰德
"以表彰他对胆汁酸及相关物质构成的研究

1927年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
朱利叶斯-瓦格纳-焦雷格
"以表彰他发现疟疾接种对治疗瘫痪性痴呆的治疗价值

1927年诺贝尔文学奖
亨利-柏格森
"以表彰他丰富而有生命力的思想以及展示这些思想的杰出技巧

1927年诺贝尔和平奖
费迪南-布瓦松和路德维希-奎德
"以表彰他们对在法国和德国出现有利于国际和平合作的舆论的贡献

1926
1926年诺贝尔物理学奖
让-巴蒂斯特-佩兰
"以表彰他对物质不连续结构的研究,特别是对沉淀平衡的发现

1926年诺贝尔化学奖
西奥多-斯维德伯格(The Theodor)
"以表彰他在分散系统方面的工作

1926年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
约翰内斯-安德烈亚斯-格里布-菲比格
"以表彰他发现了螺旋藻类的癌变"

1926年诺贝尔文学奖
格拉齐亚-德莱达
"以表彰她的理想主义作品,这些作品清晰地描绘了她家乡岛屿的生活,并以深度和同情心处理了一般的人类问题。

1926年诺贝尔和平奖
阿里斯蒂德-布里安和古斯塔夫-斯特雷泽曼
"以表彰他们在促成《洛迦诺条约》中的关键作用

1925
诺贝尔物理学奖 1925年
詹姆斯-弗兰克和古斯塔夫-路德维希-赫兹
"以表彰他们发现了关于电子对原子的影响的规律

1925年诺贝尔化学奖
理查德-阿道夫-齐格蒙德
"以表彰他对胶体溶液的异质性的证明以及他所使用的方法,这些方法后来成为现代胶体化学的基础

1925年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项部分的特别基金。

1925年诺贝尔文学奖
萧伯纳
"因为他的作品既有理想主义的特点,又有人性的特点,其刺激性的讽刺常常被注入一种奇特的诗意的美。

1925年诺贝尔和平奖
奥斯汀-张伯伦爵士
"以表彰他在促成《洛迦诺条约》中的关键作用

查尔斯-盖茨-道斯
"以表彰他在实现道斯计划中的关键作用

1924
1924年诺贝尔物理学奖
卡尔-曼恩-乔治-西格巴恩
"以表彰他在X射线光谱学领域的发现和研究

1924年诺贝尔化学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖部的特别基金。

1924年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
维尔姆-艾恩多芬
"因为他发现了心电图的机制。

1924年诺贝尔文学奖
弗拉迪斯瓦夫-斯坦尼斯瓦夫-雷蒙
"以表彰他的伟大民族史诗《农民》。

1924年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1923
1923年诺贝尔物理学奖
罗伯特-安德鲁斯-米利肯
"表彰他在电的基本电荷和光电效应方面的工作"

1923年诺贝尔化学奖
弗里茨-普雷格
"以表彰他发明的有机物质的微观分析方法

1923年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
弗雷德里克-格兰特-班廷和约翰-詹姆斯-里卡德-麦克劳德
"表彰他发现了胰岛素"

1923年诺贝尔文学奖
威廉-巴特勒-叶芝
"表彰他总是以高度的艺术形式表达整个民族的精神的鼓舞人心的诗歌"

1923年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给本奖部的特别基金。

1922
1922年诺贝尔物理学奖
尼尔斯-亨利克-大卫-玻尔
"以表彰他在调查原子结构和从原子中发出的辐射方面的服务。

1922年诺贝尔化学奖
弗朗西斯-威廉-阿斯顿
"以表彰他通过质谱仪发现大量非放射性元素中的同位素,以及他对整数规则的阐述

1922年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
阿奇博尔德-维维安-希尔
"以表彰他在肌肉中产生热量的相关发现

奥托-弗里茨-梅耶霍夫
"以表彰他发现氧气的消耗与肌肉中乳酸的代谢之间的固定关系

1922年诺贝尔文学奖
哈辛托-贝纳文特
"以表彰他继承了西班牙戏剧的辉煌传统的快乐方式

1922年诺贝尔和平奖
弗里德约夫-南森
"以表彰他在遣返战俘、国际救济工作和作为国际联盟的难民事务高级专员方面的领导作用

1921
诺贝尔物理学奖 1921年
阿尔伯特-爱因斯坦
"以表彰他对理论物理学的贡献,特别是他发现了光电效应的规律。

1921年诺贝尔化学奖
弗雷德里克-索迪
"以表彰他对放射性物质的化学知识的贡献,以及他对同位素的起源和性质的研究

1921年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项部分的特别基金。

1921年诺贝尔文学奖
安纳托尔-法兰西
"以表彰他杰出的文学成就,这些成就的特点是风格高贵、对人类的深刻同情、优雅和真正的高卢气质。

1921年诺贝尔和平奖
卡尔-哈尔玛-布兰廷和克里斯蒂安-卢斯-兰格
"以表彰他们对和平事业和有组织的国际主义的毕生贡献

1920
诺贝尔物理学奖 1920年
查尔斯-爱德华-纪尧姆
"以表彰他通过发现镍钢合金中的异常现象而为物理学的精确测量做出的贡献

1920年诺贝尔化学奖
瓦尔特-赫尔曼-恩斯特
"以表彰他在热化学方面的工作

1920年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
沙克-奥古斯特-斯坦伯格-克罗格
"以表彰他对毛细血管运动调节机制的发现

1920年诺贝尔文学奖
克努特-佩德森-哈姆森
"以表彰他的巨著《土壤的生长》。

1920年诺贝尔和平奖
莱昂-维克多-奥古斯特-布尔乔亚
"以表彰他对和平与正义事业的长期贡献以及他在建立国际联盟中的突出作用

1919
1919年诺贝尔物理学奖
约翰内斯-斯塔克
"以表彰他发现运河射线的多普勒效应和电场中光谱线的分裂

1919年诺贝尔化学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给本奖部的特别基金。

1919年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
儒勒-波尔代
"表彰他在免疫方面的发现"

1919年诺贝尔文学奖
Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler
"特别表彰他的史诗《奥林匹亚之春》。

1919年诺贝尔和平奖
托马斯-伍德罗-威尔逊
"以表彰他作为国际联盟创始人的作用

1918
1918年诺贝尔物理学奖
马克斯-卡尔-恩斯特-路德维希-普朗克
"以表彰他通过发现能量量子为物理学的发展所作出的贡献。

1918年诺贝尔化学奖
弗里茨-哈伯
"表彰他从元素中合成氨"

1918年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项部分的特别基金。

1918年诺贝尔文学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配到该奖段的特别基金中。

1918年诺贝尔和平奖
本年度没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给本奖区的特别基金。

1917
诺贝尔物理学奖 1917年
查尔斯-格洛弗-巴克拉
"表彰他发现了元素的伦琴辐射特性"

1917年诺贝尔化学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项部分的特别基金。

1917年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1917年诺贝尔文学奖
卡尔-阿道夫-盖勒鲁普
"表彰他在崇高理想的激励下创作的各种丰富的诗歌"

亨利克-蓬托皮丹
"以表彰他对丹麦现今生活的真实描述

1917年诺贝尔和平奖
红十字国际委员会(Comité international de la Croix Rouge)
"为照顾受伤的士兵和战俘及其家属所做的努力

1916
诺贝尔物理学奖 1916年
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖部的特别基金。

1916年诺贝尔化学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给本奖区的特别基金。

1916年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项的特别基金。

1916年诺贝尔文学奖
卡尔-古斯塔夫-维尔纳-冯-海登斯坦姆
"以表彰他作为我国文学新时代的主要代表的重要性。

1916年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项部的特别基金。

1915
诺贝尔物理学奖 1915年
威廉-亨利-布拉格爵士和威廉-劳伦斯-布拉格
"以表彰他们在用X射线分析晶体结构方面的贡献。

1915年诺贝尔化学奖
理查德-马丁-威尔斯塔特
"以表彰他对植物色素,特别是叶绿素的研究

1915年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项部分的特别基金。

1915年诺贝尔文学奖
罗曼-罗兰
"作为对其文学创作的崇高理想主义以及对他描述不同类型人类的同情和对真理的热爱的敬意"

1915年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给本奖区的特别基金。

1914
1914年诺贝尔物理学奖
马克斯-冯-劳埃
"表彰他发现了晶体对X射线的衍射"

1914年诺贝尔化学奖
西奥多-威廉-理查兹
"以表彰他对大量化学元素的原子量的精确测定

1914年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
罗伯特-巴拉尼
"以表彰他对前庭装置的生理学和病理学的研究

1914年诺贝尔文学奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给该奖项部的特别基金。

1914年诺贝尔和平奖
这一年没有颁发诺贝尔奖。奖金被分配给了该奖项的特别基金。

1913
1913年诺贝尔物理学奖
海克-卡默林格-昂纳斯
"以表彰他对低温下物质特性的研究,特别是导致了液态氦的产生。

1913年诺贝尔化学奖
阿尔弗雷德-维尔纳
"以表彰他对分子中原子的联系所做的工作,他通过这项工作对早期的研究提出了新的看法,并开辟了新的研究领域,特别是在无机化学方面"

1913年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
查尔斯-罗伯特-里谢
"以表彰他在过敏性休克方面的工作

1913年诺贝尔文学奖
拉宾德拉纳特-泰戈尔
"因为他深刻敏感、清新优美的诗句,他以精湛的技巧使他的诗歌思想,用他自己的英语语言表达出来,成为西方文学的一部分"

1913年诺贝尔和平奖
亨利-拉封丹
"以表彰他对和平国际主义组织的无与伦比的贡献

1912
诺贝尔物理学奖 1912年
尼尔斯-古斯塔夫-达伦
"以表彰他发明了自动调节器,与用于照明灯塔和浮标的气体蓄能器一起使用" 。

1912年诺贝尔化学奖
维克托-格里尼亚尔
"以表彰他发现了所谓的格氏试剂,该试剂近年来极大地推动了有机化学的发展。

保罗-萨巴蒂埃
"以表彰他在细碎金属存在下使有机化合物氢化的方法,据此近年来大大推动了有机化学的发展。

1912年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
亚历克西斯-卡雷尔
"以表彰他在血管缝合以及血管和器官移植方面的工作

1912年诺贝尔文学奖
格哈特-约翰-罗伯特-哈普特曼
"主要是为了表彰他在戏剧艺术领域的丰富、多样和杰出的创作。

1912年诺贝尔和平奖
埃利胡-罗特
"因为他促成了北美和南美国家之间更好的理解,并发起了美国和其他国家之间重要的仲裁协议"

1911
诺贝尔物理学奖 1911年
威廉-维恩
"以表彰他对热辐射规律的发现

1911年诺贝尔化学奖
玛丽-居里(Marie Curie), née Sklodowska
"以表彰她通过发现镭和钋元素,通过分离镭和研究这种特殊元素的性质和化合物而对化学的发展作出的贡献。

1911年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
阿尔瓦-古尔斯特兰
"以表彰他对眼睛的透视学的研究

1911年诺贝尔文学奖
莫里斯(Mooris)-波利多-玛丽-伯恩哈德-梅特林克伯爵
"表彰他多方面的文学活动,特别是他的戏剧作品,这些作品以丰富的想象力和诗意的想象力而著称,有时以童话的形式揭示了深刻的灵感,同时以一种神秘的方式吸引了读者自己的感情,激发了他们的想象力"

1911年诺贝尔和平奖
托比亚斯-迈克尔-卡雷尔-阿塞尔
"以表彰他作为国际法研究所的共同创始人、海牙国际私法会议的发起人和国际法律关系领域的先驱者所发挥的作用" 。

阿尔弗雷德-赫尔曼-弗里德
"因为他努力揭露和打击他认为是战争的主要原因,即国际关系中的无政府状态" 。

1910
1910年诺贝尔物理学奖
约翰内斯-迪德里克-范德瓦尔斯
"以表彰他在气体和液体的状态方程方面的工作

1910年诺贝尔化学奖
奥托-瓦拉赫
"以表彰他在脂环族化合物领域的开创性工作对有机化学和化学工业的贡献

1910年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
阿尔布雷希特-科塞尔
"以表彰他在蛋白质(包括核物质)方面的工作对我们的细胞化学知识所做的贡献

1910年诺贝尔文学奖
保罗-约翰-路德维希-海斯
"以表彰他作为抒情诗人、戏剧家、小说家和世界知名的短篇小说家在长期的创作生涯中所表现出的渗透着理想主义的完美艺术性。

1910年诺贝尔和平奖
国际常设和平局(Bureau international permanent de la Paix)
"作为各国和平协会之间的纽带,并帮助他们组织国际和平运动的世界集会

1909
诺贝尔物理学奖 1909年
古列尔莫-马可尼和卡尔-斐迪南-布劳恩
"以表彰他们对发展无线电报的贡献"

1909年诺贝尔化学奖
威尔海姆-奥斯特瓦尔德
"以表彰他在催化方面的工作以及他对支配化学平衡和反应速率的基本原则的研究

1909年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
埃米尔-西奥多-科赫
"以表彰他对甲状腺的生理学、病理学和外科的研究工作

1909年诺贝尔文学奖
塞尔玛-奥蒂利亚-洛维萨-拉格洛夫
"以表彰她的著作中所体现的崇高的理想主义、生动的想象力和精神感悟。

1909年诺贝尔和平奖
奥古斯特-玛丽-弗朗索瓦-比尔纳特和保罗-亨利-本杰明-巴鲁埃-德-康斯坦特,康斯坦特-德-雷贝克男爵
"以表彰他们在国际和平与仲裁运动中的突出地位

1908
诺贝尔物理学奖 1908年
加布里埃尔-李普曼
"以表彰他以干涉现象为基础用照片再现色彩的方法

1908年诺贝尔化学奖
欧内斯特-卢瑟福
"以表彰他对元素的分解和放射性物质的化学的研究

1908年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
伊利亚-伊里奇-梅契尼科夫和保罗-埃利希
"以表彰他们在免疫力方面的工作

1908年诺贝尔文学奖
鲁道夫-克里斯托夫-欧根
"以表彰他对真理的认真探索,他的思想力量,他的广泛视野,以及他在众多作品中以热情和有力的表达方式证明和发展了理想主义的生活哲学"

1908年诺贝尔和平奖
克拉斯-蓬图斯-阿诺德森和弗雷德里克-巴耶尔
"以表彰他们作为政治家、和平协会领导人、演说家和作家为和平事业做出的长期努力

1907
诺贝尔物理学奖 1907年
阿尔伯特-亚伯拉罕-迈克尔逊(Albert Abraham Michelson
"以表彰他的精密光学仪器以及在其帮助下进行的光谱和计量学研究

1907年诺贝尔化学奖
爱德华-布赫纳
"以表彰他的生物化学研究和无细胞发酵的发现

1907年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
查尔斯-路易斯-阿尔方斯-拉维兰
"以表彰他对原生动物在引起疾病方面所起作用的研究

诺贝尔文学奖 1907年
鲁德亚德-吉卜林
"以表彰这位世界著名作家的观察力、独创性的想象力、思想的活力和非凡的叙事才能,这些都是他的创作的特点

1907年诺贝尔和平奖
埃内斯托-特奥多罗-莫内塔
"因为他在新闻界和和平会议上的工作,无论是公开的还是私下的,都是为了促进法国和意大利之间的谅解

路易-雷诺
"以表彰他对海牙和日内瓦会议的进行和结果的决定性影响

1906
1906年诺贝尔物理学奖
约瑟夫-约翰-汤姆森
"以表彰他对气体传导电的理论和实验研究的巨大功绩

1906年诺贝尔化学奖
亨利-莫桑
"以表彰他在研究和分离氟元素方面所做的巨大贡献,以及在科学领域采用以他名字命名的电炉"

诺贝尔生理学或医学奖 1906年
卡米洛-高尔基和圣地亚哥-拉蒙-卡贾尔
"以表彰他们对神经系统结构的研究工作

1906年诺贝尔文学奖
吉奥苏埃-卡杜奇
"不仅是考虑到他深厚的学识和批判性的研究,更重要的是对其诗歌杰作所具有的创造活力、清新风格和抒情力量的赞誉"

1906年诺贝尔和平奖
西奥多-罗斯福
"因为他在结束世界上两个大国--日本和俄国--之间最近发动的血腥战争中发挥了作用"

1905
诺贝尔物理学奖 1905年
菲利普-爱德华-安东-冯-莱纳德
"以表彰他在阴极射线方面的工作

1905年诺贝尔化学奖
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer
"以表彰他通过对有机染料和芳烃化合物的研究,为推动有机化学和化学工业的发展所做的贡献。

1905年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
罗伯特-科赫
"以表彰他在结核病方面的调查和发现

1905年诺贝尔文学奖
亨利克-西恩凯维茨
"因为他作为史诗作家的杰出功绩"

1905年诺贝尔和平奖
贝塔-冯-苏特纳
"因为她大胆地反对战争的恐怖"

1904
诺贝尔物理学奖 1904年
雷利勋爵(John William Strutt)
"以表彰他对最重要的气体密度的研究,以及他在这些研究中对氩气的发现

1904年诺贝尔化学奖
威廉-拉姆斯爵士
"以表彰他在发现空气中的惰性气体元素方面的贡献,以及他对这些元素在周期系中的地位的确定

1904年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
伊万-彼得罗维奇-巴甫洛夫
"以表彰他在消化生理学方面的工作,通过这项工作,有关这一主题的重要方面的知识得到了改变和扩大"

1904年诺贝尔文学奖
弗雷德里克-米斯特拉尔
"以表彰他的诗歌创作的新的原创性和真正的灵感,它忠实地反映了他的人民的自然风光和本土精神,此外,他作为普罗旺斯语言学家的重要工作

何塞-埃切加雷-埃扎吉雷
"以表彰他以独特和新颖的方式创作了大量辉煌的作品,恢复了西班牙戏剧的伟大传统。

1904年诺贝尔和平奖
国际法研究所(Institut de droit international)
"以表彰其在公法中努力发展国家间的和平关系并使战争法更加人道化

1903
诺贝尔物理学奖 1903年
安托万-亨利-贝克勒尔
"以表彰他因发现自发放射性而做出的非凡贡献

皮埃尔-居里和玛丽-居里(Marie Sklodowska)。
"以表彰他们对亨利-贝克勒尔教授所发现的辐射现象的共同研究所作出的非凡贡献。

1903年诺贝尔化学奖
斯万特-奥古斯特-阿伦纽斯
"以表彰他通过电解离解理论对化学的发展所作出的特殊贡献。

1903年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
尼尔斯-雷伯格-芬森
"以表彰他在用集中的光辐射治疗疾病,特别是寻常狼疮方面的贡献,他由此为医学科学开辟了一条新的途径"

1903年诺贝尔文学奖
比昂斯捷尔尼-马蒂纳斯-比昂松
"作为对他高尚、壮丽和多才多艺的诗歌的褒奖,他的诗歌始终以其灵感的新鲜性和其精神的罕见的纯洁性而与众不同"

1903年诺贝尔和平奖
威廉-兰道尔-克雷默
"以表彰他长期以来为支持和平与仲裁的理念而做出的不懈努力

1902
诺贝尔物理学奖 1902年
亨德里克-安通-洛伦茨和彼得-泽曼
"以表彰他们通过研究磁力对辐射现象的影响所作出的非凡贡献。

1902年诺贝尔化学奖
赫尔曼-埃米尔-费舍尔
"以表彰他在糖和嘌呤合成方面的工作所做出的非凡贡献

1902年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
罗纳德-罗斯
"以表彰他在疟疾方面的工作,他通过这项工作证明了疟疾是如何进入机体的,从而为成功研究这种疾病和防治方法奠定了基础"

1902年诺贝尔文学奖
克里斯蒂安-马蒂亚斯-西奥多-蒙姆森
"最伟大的在世历史写作艺术大师,特别是他的巨著《罗马史》"

1902年诺贝尔和平奖
埃利-杜康蒙
"因其对伯尔尼和平局的不懈努力和娴熟的领导能力

查尔斯-阿尔伯特-戈巴特
"以表彰他对各国议会联盟的出色的实际管理

1901
1901年诺贝尔物理学奖
伦琴(Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen)
"以表彰他通过发现后来以他的名字命名的杰出射线所做出的非凡贡献

1901年诺贝尔化学奖
雅各布-亨里克斯-范-特霍夫
"以表彰他通过发现溶液中的化学动力学和渗透压规律所作出的非凡贡献

1901年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖
埃米尔-阿道夫-冯-贝林
"因为他在血清疗法方面的工作,特别是对白喉的应用,他在医学领域开辟了一条新的道路,从而为医生提供了对付疾病和死亡的胜利武器。

1901年诺贝尔文学奖
苏利-普鲁多姆
"特别表彰他的诗歌创作,它证明了崇高的理想主义、完美的艺术以及心灵与智慧的罕见结合。

1901年诺贝尔和平奖
让-亨利-杜南
"以表彰他为帮助受伤的士兵和创造国际谅解而作出的人道主义努力

弗雷德里克-帕西
"以表彰他为国际和平会议、外交和仲裁所做的毕生工作

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