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[2017.10.14] Celebrating Diwali 庆祝排灯节

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本帖最后由 bleuciel 于 2017-10-23 19:18 编辑

Celebrating Diwali
庆祝排灯节


Smoke and errors
烟火和错误


DELHI
德里
The courts take the fun out of a holiday
法院取消节日的快乐

There is a buzz in the air of India’s capital, and not just because because Diwali, the Hindu festival of lights, is barely a week away. Along with a shopping rush and a welcome dip in temperature, the season augurs a surge in levels of PM2.5, tiny particles of dust that lodge deep in the lungs and cause such diseases as asthma, pulmonary fibrosis and cancer.

现在,印度首都沸沸扬扬,并不是因为排灯节(印度灯节)一周之遥。本季虽有购物潮,但PM2.5含量大幅上升,节日欢迎度也开始降温。PM2.5是可入肺的颗粒物,长期可引起哮喘,肺纤维化以及癌症等病症。

Recent mornings in the world’s most polluted megacity have already seen measures of toxic dust exceed ten times the World Health Organisation’s recommended maximum. They could spike far higher during Diwali, when pyromaniac revelers ignite lakhs and crores (ie, a lot) of sparklers and rockets. Last year’s choking festive smog hung for days, with the level of PM2.5 pushing well beyond 30 times what humans can safely breathe. Small wonder: held at arm’s length, a popular firework known as a “garland” generates more than 1,000 times more poisonous smoke than the WHO maximum; the even stinkier “snake tablet” is 2,560 times over the limit.

近期,世界污染最严重的大城市中,早间都可以看到有毒粉尘的监测,结果显示已经超过了世界卫生组织规定的最高标准的10倍。排灯节期间可能会更高,因为人们将燃放价值十万或者千万卢比(甚至更多)的烟花爆竹。去年,节日烟气令人窒息,持续数日,PM2.5含量飙升30倍之多,超过人们可安全呼吸的程度。有一种叫“花环”的焰火受人欢迎,可手持燃放,但会产生超过WHO最大标准1000多倍的有毒气体。“蛇皮片”更讨厌,燃放后的毒气超过标准2560倍。

On October 9th India’s Supreme Court banned the sale of fireworks in the capital. Considering that one study reckons that eight Delhi-wallahs die every day as a direct result of pollution, and another that they would live an average of nine years longer if their city met the WHO’s standards for air quality, one might expect the court order to be met with general relief. But that would be to underestimate the acrimonious polarisation of Indian society.

10月9日,印度最高法院规定,首都禁止销售焰火。因为一份研究推断,德里由于污染,每天都有八位要人死去。另一份认为,假如德里的空气达到WHO的标准,这些人平均寿命会延长9年。有人认为,此禁令会受到一致认同。但这种想法却没有估计到印度社会严重分化的事实。

Fireworks vendors are certainly unhappy. Diwali should be a bonanza, but they will now have to ship unsold stocks out of the city, or pay police heftier-than-usual bribes to sell them under the counter. Libertarians are also angry: Indian courts are as notorious for overreaching as for underperforming. The ban is on the sale but not the use of fireworks, and so is useless for protecting public health, the critics say. Anyhow, they add, such things should be decided by legislators, not judges.

烟火商贩很不乐意。排灯节本应高兴,可是现在他们必须把积货船运出城,或是高额贿赂,偷偷贩卖。自由党人也生气,印度法院不仅工作差劲,而且管事宽泛,同样令人讨厌。禁令只限于销售,没有禁止使用,保护公众健康用之甚少,批评者称。这些是立法者的事,而不是由法院决定,他们补充道。

The greatest rancour has come from Hindu nationalists, whose orange-tinted spectacles perceive every issue as the thin end of the wedge of an Islamic conspiracy. On social media, one widely shared trope compared the court’s haste to condemn Hindu traditions with an alleged reluctance to denounce Muslim ones, such as animal sacrifice. “Can I just ask on cracker ban?” tweeted Chetan Bhagat, a popular novelist, “Why only guts to do this for Hindu festivals?” Soon they’ll be banning Hindu cremations too, chimed the governor of Tripura state, in eastern India.

最大的仇恨来自于印度民族主义者,他们戴着橙色眼镜,把每件事都看作是伊斯兰教徒的阴谋,认为他们会从小事中获得大利。社会舆论方面,有种说法被广泛认可。这种说法将印度法院谴责印度传统的犹豫与取消伊斯兰传统的公开的不情愿进行了对比,比如牲畜祭祀。“我能质疑烟火禁令吗?”知名小说家巴哈特在推特上说。“为什么只有勇士才敢于为印度节日如此行动?”不久,他们还会取消火葬,印度东部的特里普拉邦省长说。

Yet even as some assailed the court for attacking an ancient tradition, others noted that fireworks were introduced to India from China merely a few centuries ago, a millennium or two after Hindus started celebrating Diwali with lamps and candles. Much as others might abhor animal sacrifice, came another riposte, it cannot be called a menace to public health. “Even your lungs follow a religion?” teased one tweet in response to Mr Bhagat.

然而,当有些人声讨法院攻击古老传统的时候,另一些人发现,焰火是几个世纪以前从中国流入,这之前的一两千年印度人都是用油灯和蜡烛庆祝节日。跟很多人讨厌牲畜祭祀一样,又有人会反对说,排灯节不能称作对公众健康的威胁。“难道你的肺也有信宗教吗?”有个推文如此回击巴哈特道。
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