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Back in court 堕胎争议重回法庭

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发表于 2015-12-1 11:24:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
原文链接:http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21678790-it-may-poison-2016-election-supreme-court-should-strike-down-texass-restrictive

Abortion in America

Back in court
堕胎争议重回法庭





It may poison the 2016 election, but the Supreme Court should strike down Texas’s restrictive abortion law
尽管可能对2016选举产生不利影响,最高法院还是应该废除德州限制人工流产法案


Nov 21st 2015 | From the print edition
Timekeeper

AS IF next year’s presidential election were not shaping up to be contentious enough, the Supreme Court has picked 2016 to issue its most consequential ruling on abortion in 20 years. This will add fresh impetus to a cultural battle that has raged, unresolved, on America’s national stage for almost half a century. That is regrettable. It is also necessary.

似乎明年的总统选举还不足够人们议论纷纷,最高法院决定在2016这个节骨眼上发布近二十年来最重要的对堕胎问题的裁决,这将再次激起一场全美国文化战争,一场已经争吵了快半个世纪的未决悬案,有些可悲,却很有必要。

At issue is whether a law passed by the Texas legislature called HB2 is constitutional. The state has piled regulations on abortion clinics with the aim (so far rather successful) of closing them down. The number of such clinics in the state has dropped from 41 in 2012 to 18 at the last count. If the court rules next year that HB2 is constitutional, that number will shrink further. Other states keen to restrict legal access to abortion would follow suit. Already there are four that have only one clinic for the whole state, making the legal termination of a pregnancy a right that exists in theory but not in practice.

争论的焦点在于德州颁布的(限制堕胎)法案,又名HB2,是否符合宪法,此法案旨在对堕胎诊所实行一系列管制以至于它们无法继续经营,并且到目前为止取得了不错的效果:德州堕胎诊所的数量从2012年的41家减少到据最新统计的18家,如果明年最高法院裁决HB2合宪,这个数字还会继续缩水,并且其它打算减少堕胎合法途径的州也会纷纷效仿,那么合法终止受孕权就名存实亡了。

A clear majority of Americans have, for decades, told pollsters that abortion should be legal in most cases. More recently, a narrower majority has emerged for outlawing abortion after 20 weeks, with some exceptions. That position—access to abortion that is legal and unrestricted until late in the second trimester, with some restrictions thereafter—is not unlike the compromise reached in other countries.  In more secular Britain abortion is banned after 24 weeks, with exceptions in cases where to continue the pregnancy would threaten the life of the mother, or where the child is likely to be severely disabled. The Supreme Court itself has already endorsed limits after 24 weeks, the point at which a fetus is considered to be viable outside the womb, putting it squarely alongside public opinion.

根据民意调查,绝大多数美国人数十年以来认为堕胎在大多数情况下应该是合法的,最近,稍勉强的多数人主张禁止怀孕20周以后堕胎,但允许例外。这种折中的主张——受孕六个月之前都可以合法堕胎,但六个月以后将会有限制——并不是没有先例。在受宗教影响较小的英国,怀孕满24周就不可进行人工流产,除非继续怀孕会威胁到母体生命,或者胎儿有极大的严重残疾可能。引人注目的是,最高法院早已同意了24周这个限制,因为24周正是胎儿被视为可以在子宫外独立存活的时间点,


The best way forward would be to pass legislation to this effect. But there is no chance of that, because the two sides are farther apart than ever, with some pro-choice groups arguing that abortion is an absolute right that cannot be restricted under any circumstances, and their pro-life opponents retorting that all abortions are acts of murder. The shift to the extremes has been most noticeable among Republicans. Marco Rubio, who currently looks a good bet to win his party’s presidential nomination, is in favour of any law that promises to reduce the number of abortions, even one without exclusions for rape or incest. In the past four years state legislatures have put in place 231 restrictions on abortions—more than in the whole of the previous decade.

最好的方式是通过立法来解决争议,但现在看来似乎不可能了,因为两极分化已经太严重,倾向于自由选择阵营的人认为堕胎一项在任何情况下都不该受限的权力,然而倾向于人权阵营的人认为任何时候的堕胎都与谋杀无异。走向极端的情况在共和党阵营的特别明显,比如Marco Rubio——极有可能赢得党内提名的总统候选人——就是一个例子,Marco Rubio赞同所有能降低堕胎率的法案,即使这样的法案并不将强奸和乱伦作为例外。在过去的四年里,州立立法机关已经通过了231条对堕胎的限制条令,这个数字超过了前十年的总和。


Bill of rights 权力的法案
To make abortion safe, legal and rare remains a good aim for America’s laws. But closing legal abortion clinics does nothing for safety, whatever the proponents of the Texan law claim. If such restrictions are adopted more widely, abortion will, in practice, become illegal in many places, leading to the return of dangerous, clandestine procedures. It will not necessarily become rarer. Whatever the law, abortions will be carried out. The appeals court which upheld HB2 earlier this year acknowledged as much when it wrote that Texans who wanted an abortion could in future drive to New Mexico. Factors other than its legality are more important in lowering the abortion rate. Between 2002 and 2011—just before some states began to pile on restrictions—America’s abortion rate dropped by 14%, largely because the rate of teenage pregnancy fell.

使堕胎更加安全、合法和稀少是美国立法机构的宗旨,然而无论德州法的支持者如何辩解,关闭堕胎诊所都不会使堕胎更加安全,如果堕胎限制令应用地更加广泛一些,堕胎实际上会在大多数地方变成违法行为,将会导致更加危险的私下手术出现,然而堕胎率不一定会下降,不论法律如何规定,堕胎都不可避免,上述法院承认这种现象的存在,在今年早些时候支持HB2时写道:将来想要堕胎的德州市民可以开车去新奥尔良。除了合法性,其他因素在降低堕胎率中可能更加重要,在2002年至2011年之间,也就是一些州开始发布限制令之前,导致美国堕胎率降低了14%的原因是青少年怀孕率降低了。

That nine unelected justices can do a better job of reflecting what America, in aggregate, favours than thousands of elected politicians in Washington or state capitols—as they did when ruling for gay marriage—is a painful indictment of American politics. It is nevertheless true. Despite the reaction it will provoke, the court should strike down HB2.

还未选出的九位大法官可以在代表多数人民利益上做得更好,而不是满足少数坐在华盛顿或州议会大厦的政客的喜好,比如曾经在同性恋婚姻上做出了应受到谴责的裁决。无论如何这一点是真的:最高法院应该废除HB2,尽管一石将会激起千层浪。


From the print edition: Leaders

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发表于 2016-2-6 17:53:36 | 显示全部楼层
新奥尔良(New Orleans)
新墨西哥州(New Mexico)
发表于 2016-6-16 10:40:37 | 显示全部楼层
Already there are four that have only one clinic for the whole state 这句好像漏了呢,即使原本他们中的四个州都仅有一所该类诊所。
谢谢分享,楼主辛苦了
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