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[2015.10.31] The trust machine 信任机器

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发表于 2015-11-2 11:02:26 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 黑蔷薇 于 2015-11-2 11:06 编辑

The promise of the blockchain
区块链的承诺

The trust machine
信任机器


The technology behind bitcoin could transform how the economy works
比特币背后的技术可能彻底改变经济运行模式

Oct 31st 2015 | From the print edition



BITCOIN has a bad reputation. The decentralised digital cryptocurrency, powered by a vast computer network, is notorious for the wild fluctuations in its value, the zeal of its supporters and its degenerate uses, such as extortion, buying drugs and hiring hitmen in the online bazaars of the “dark net”.

比特币现在声名狼藉。这种由巨大的电子计算机网络驱动的开源电子加密货币因多种原因而广受诟病:胡乱的价值波动、支持者的狂热和沦为非法交易工具(如敲诈、毒品交易和在“网络黑市”上雇佣职业杀手)。

This is unfair. The value of a bitcoin has been pretty stable, at around $250, for most of this year. Among regulators and financial institutions, scepticism has given way to enthusiasm (the European Union recently recognised it as a currency). But most unfair of all is that bitcoin’s shady image causes people to overlook the extraordinary potential of the “blockchain”, the technology that underpins it. This innovation carries a significance stretching far beyond cryptocurrency. The blockchain lets people who have no particular confidence in each other collaborate without having to go through a neutral central authority. Simply put, it is a machine for creating trust.

然而这些评价都有失公允,事实上比特币的价值一直很平稳,今年几乎都稳定在1美元兑换250美元上下。在监管和金融机构眼里,对它的怀疑逐渐让位于热忱。毕竟,近来欧盟已经承认其作为货币的合法地位。但是比特币的阴暗面导致人们忽视了“区块链(比特币所使用的核心技术)”的巨大潜力,这项革新技术的意义远胜于加密货币。有了区块链,互不相识的人们可以不经过独立第三方机构进行合作,简单来讲,区块链信任之源。

To understand the power of blockchain systems, and the things they can do, it is important to distinguish between three things that are commonly muddled up, namely the bitcoin currency, the specific blockchain that underpins it and the idea of blockchains in general. A helpful analogy is with Napster, the pioneering but illegal “peer-to-peer” file-sharing service that went on line in 1999, providing free access to millions of music tracks. Napster itself was swiftly shut down, but it inspired a host of other peer-to-peer services. Many of these were also used for pirating music and films. Yet despite its dubious origins, peer-to-peer technology found legitimate uses, powering internet startups such as Skype (for telephony) and Spotify (for music streaming)—and also, as it happens, bitcoin.

想要了解区块链能做什么,区分三个常常混淆的概念很重要:比特币通货、起支持功能的区块链和概念上的区块链。用Napster来打个比方,这项服务于1999年上线,是“点对点”文件非法分享的先驱,它向用户提供上百万首音乐免费下载,虽然Napster很快地被关闭了,但它激发了众多点对点服务的兴起,这些服务很多被用来盗版音乐和电影。尽管有着不靠谱的出身,点对点技术最终走向了合法化,激发了一批新的科技创投企业,如Skype(用于通话)、Spotify(流媒体音乐平台)和比特币。

The blockchain is an even more potent technology. In essence it is a shared, trusted, public ledger that everyone can inspect, but which no single user controls. The participants in a blockchain system collectively keep the ledger up to date: it can be amended only according to strict rules and by general agreement. Bitcoin’s blockchain ledger prevents double-spending and keeps track of transactions continuously. It is what makes possible a currency without a central bank.

区块链是一项更加强有力的技术,本质上来讲,它是一个共享并安全的总账本,任何人都可以查阅,但是不受任一单一个体控制,在满足严格的规定和达到一定的共识的条件下,总账本数据由所有用户一起更新。比特币的区块链总账本技术能够避免重复交易并能够对交易进行持续的追踪,这样就使不依靠中央银行的货币流通成为现实。

Blockchains are also the latest example of the unexpected fruits of cryptography. Mathematical scrambling is used to boil down an original piece of information into a code, known as a hash. Any attempt to tamper with any part of the blockchain is apparent immediately—because the new hash will not match the old ones. In this way a science that keeps information secret (vital for encrypting messages and online shopping and banking) is, paradoxically, also a tool for open dealing.

区块链也是加密技术的最新意外收获。散列,用数学加扰将原信息分解成代码,任何对区块链的篡改都会马上被发现,因为篡改后的散列会与之前的不匹配,于是信息得以保密,对于加密信息、网上购物和网银来讲,信息安全至关重要,然而与之矛盾的是,这项保密技术同时也是公开交易的工具。

Bitcoin itself may never be more than a curiosity. However blockchains have a host of other uses because they meet the need for a trustworthy record, something vital for transactions of every sort. Dozens of startups now hope to capitalise on the blockchain technology, either by doing clever things with the bitcoin blockchain or by creating new blockchains of their own (see article).

比特币本身可能不过是一个新奇的玩意儿,但区块链却因达到了可信赖记录仪(对于交易来讲至关重要)的标准,被广泛使用。不少初创公司跃跃欲试想要投资区块链技术,要么给比特币区块链寻找新用途,要么自己创造新的区块链。

One idea, for example, is to make cheap, tamper-proof public databases—land registries, say, (Honduras and Greece are interested); or registers of the ownership of luxury goods or works of art. Documents can be notarised by embedding information about them into a public blockchain—and you will no longer need a notary to vouch for them. Financial-services firms are contemplating using blockchains as a record of who owns what instead of having a series of internal ledgers. A trusted private ledger removes the need for reconciling each transaction with a counterparty, it is fast and it minimises errors. Santander reckons that it could save banks up to $20 billion a year by 2022. Twenty-five banks have just joined a blockchain startup, called R3 CEV, to develop common standards, and NASDAQ is about to start using the technology to record trading in securities of private companies.

举例来说,区块链技术可用来建低成本且不可篡改的公共数据库,比如让洪都拉斯和希腊政府感兴趣的土地注册登记数据库;或是奢侈品或艺术品的所有权注册。文件公正可以通过将信息嵌入公共区块链得以公证,人们再也不需要找到公证人来对其担保。金融服务公司正在考虑用区块链取代一系列内部总分类账本来记录所有权,可靠的私人账本省去了每次与交易对方调整账项的麻烦,并且更加快速,错误更少。据Santander估算,到2022年前,这种做法可以每年为银行节省200亿美元。日前,25家银行入股了一家叫做R3CEV的创新公司以着眼于通用标准,纳斯达克正着手利用这种技术记录未上市公司的证券交易。

These new blockchains need not work in exactly the way that bitcoin’s does. Many of them could tweak its model by, for example, finding alternatives to its energy-intensive “mining” process, which pays participants newly minted bitcoins in return for providing the computing power needed to maintain the ledger. A group of vetted participants within an industry might instead agree to join a private blockchain, say, that needs less security. Blockchains can also implement business rules, such as transactions that take place only if two or more parties endorse them, or if another transaction has been completed first. As with Napster and peer-to-peer technology, a clever idea is being modified and improved. In the process, it is fast throwing off its reputation for shadiness.

这些新的区块链并不一定要以与比特币相同的方式运作,它们可以调整自己的模型,比如发现新的程序来替代能源消耗巨大的“挖矿程序(付给参与者一定的比特币奖励他们提供了维持账户所需要的计算力)”。一个行业审查小组可能更愿意加入私人区块链,因为它不需要额外的安全保障。区块链还可以应用到商业约束上,比如一些交易只能在两个或以上参与方均同意的情况下生效,或者另外的交易必须先其发生。就像Napter和点对点技术一样,区块链技术正在不断的修正和提高中走向更加巧妙的用途,在这个过程中,它正飞快地为自己正名。

New chains on the block
区块链上的新链条

The spread of blockchains is bad for anyone in the “trust business”—the centralised institutions and bureaucracies, such as banks, clearing houses and government authorities that are deemed sufficiently trustworthy to handle transactions. Even as some banks and governments explore the use of this new technology, others will surely fight it. But given the decline in trust in governments and banks in recent years, a way to create more scrutiny and transparency could be no bad thing.

区块链的传播对依托于“信用”的业务是个不小的打击,这些以银行、结算所和相关政府机构为首的中央集权和官僚制组织将充分可信任作为交易操作的必要条件,即使一些银行和政府正在尝试使用这项新技术,其他的也一定会持反对意见。但是因为近年来政府和银行越来越不受到信任,这项能提高安全性和透明度的新技术自有一席之地。

Drawing up regulations for blockchains at this early stage would be a mistake: the history of peer-to-peer technology suggests that it is likely to be several years before the technology’s full potential becomes clear. In the meantime regulators should stay their hands, or find ways to accommodate new approaches within existing frameworks, rather than risk stifling a fast-evolving idea with overly prescriptiv rules.

现在对区块链起草管制条例还为时过早,点对点技术的历史告诉我们充分挖掘一项新技术地潜力需要好几年。与此同时,监管者要么管好自己的手,要么找到办法以便将这种新事物融入现有的框架,而不应冒险去用过于繁琐的规则来扼杀日新月异的想法。

The notion of shared public ledgers may not sound revolutionary or sexy. Neither did double-entry book-keeping or joint-stock companies. Yet, like them, the blockchain is an apparently mundane process that has the potential to transform how people and businesses co-operate. Bitcoin fanatics are enthralled by the libertarian ideal of a pure, digital currency beyond the reach of any central bank. The real innovation is not the digital coins themselves, but the trust machine that mints them—and which promises much more besides.

公共性账本对于采用复式记账或者股份制公司来说可能并不是那么具有革命性和引人入胜,然而,就像他们曾走过的路一样,区块链在改变人们和公司的合作方式上具有巨大的潜力。比特币的狂热支持者为不经过任何中央银行的纯数据货币流通这个想法而着迷,真正开拓新时代的并不是比特币本身,而是孕育比特币的信任机制,并且这种机制将为人们谋更多福祉。



原文:http://www.economist.com/news/le ... works-trust-machine


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发表于 2015-11-3 17:55:11 | 显示全部楼层
为楼主强大的理解能力和翻译能力深深折服!有一处貌似有些欠妥:
The notion of shared public ledgers may not sound revolutionary or sexy. Neither did double-entry book-keeping or joint-stock companies. Yet, like them, the blockchain is an apparently mundane process that has the potential to transform how people and businesses co-operate.
*公共性账本对于采用复式记账或者股份制公司来说可能并不是那么具有革命性和引人入胜。然而,就像他们曾走过的路一样,区块链在改变人们和公司的合作方式上具有巨大的潜力。
试译:公共性账本的概念听起来也许不那么颠覆或炫酷,但复式记账或股份制公司的概念也一样。如同它们一样,区块链技术的发展也会经历一段表面平凡却蕴含改变人类和商业合作方式的潜力之路。
发表于 2015-11-4 10:01:56 | 显示全部楼层
1. BITCOIN has a bad reputation. 对于这句话的理解,大部分翻译都存在误区。在汉语中,“比特币现在声名狼藉”表达的是一种整体概念,就是说,整体来说,比特币是不好的。在我看来,英文的原文想表达的是这样一种意思:比特币有好的一面,也有不好的一面。而这种不好的一面让人们忽视了它的好的一面。不是泛泛之论。

2.   its degenerate uses  主要是指违背道德伦理的运用。虽然有的时候违背了道德伦理你也是违法,但是角度不一样。

3. This innovation carries a significance stretching far beyond cryptocurrency.  这里的意见同第一条。

4.   the idea of blockchains in general. 区块链思想的一般含义,一般意义上的区块链思想。  

5,。 It is what makes possible a currency without a central bank.
       换个表达方式就死: It is the thing that makes possible a currency without a central bank.
       所以现在的翻译是错误的。

6.  于是信息得以保密,对于加密信息、网上购物和网银来讲,信息安全至关重要,然而与之矛盾的是,这项保密技术同时也是公开交易的工具。   
      
       这里的翻译好像过于一厢情愿了,而且红字部分在原文里是没有的。原文的确想表达这种意思,但是这要通过汉语的遣词造句来实现,而不是这么直白的表达出来。


6. have a host of other uses  还有众多的其他用途。而不是已经被广泛使用。

7.  hope to capitalise on the blockchain technology, either by doing clever things with the bitcoin blockchain or by creating new blockchains of their own (see article).

     希望从区块链技术上获利,获利的途径(r by )要么是,要么是。。。。

8.  tamper-proof  防篡改的,而不是不能篡改的。意思完全不一样。

9.   a record of who owns what 这里直译就是:谁拥有什么的记录 所以应该是所有权分类明细账目

10.
The spread of blockchains is bad for anyone in the “trust business”—the centralised institutions and bureaucracies, such as banks, clearing houses and government authorities that are deemed sufficiently trustworthy to handle transactions. Even as some banks and governments explore the use of this new technology, others will surely fight it. But given the decline in trust in governments and banks in recent years, a way to create more scrutiny and transparency could be no bad thing.

区块链的传播对依托于“信用”的业务是个不小的打击,这些以银行、结算所和相关政府机构为首的中央集权和官僚制组织将充分可信任作为交易操作的必要条件,即使一些银行和政府正在尝试使用这项新技术,其他的也一定会持反对意见。但是因为近年来政府和银行越来越不受到信任,这项能提高安全性和透明度的新技术自有一席之地。


一开始学习翻译的时候,我也是像你现在这样随意打乱原文的表述。不是说这样不可取,而是这样做容易搞乱原文的内在逻辑,结果造成译文的失真,乃至硬伤。或者说的不好听一点,就是没有彻底读懂原文。像经济学人这种稿件,内在的逻辑性是很强的,环环相套,我想你应该是深有体会吧。除非个人的汉语和英语运用达到了炉火纯青的地步,不然,最好还是老老实实按照原文来。

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