Terror in France
Europe’s response to the Paris attacks is different this time
“Je suis Charlie” was about free speech—but now the issue is migrants
Nov 14th 2015 | Europe
IN JANUARY 2015, after 17 people died in a series of incidents in Paris—including an attack on Charlie Hebdo, a satirical newspaper—Europeerupted in spontaneous demonstrations. People marched in protest against an assault on a fundamental principle of European civilisation: freedom of expression. Millions turned out for rallies across the continent, toting signs bearing the message “Je suis Charlie” in identification with those killed at the paper, which often caricatured the Prophet Muhammad. Many cautioned against letting the attacks turn public sentiment against Muslims in general, whether immigrant or native-born. In Germany the reaction of Horst Seehofer, the chairman of the CSU (the Bavarian sister party of Germany's governing Christian Democrats), was typical. Denying any links between terrorism and immigration policies, he called on Germany’s anti-Islam Pegida movement to cancel a planned demonstration, and said he was pleased that all German parties had “refrained from deriving political capital from the attack.”
2015年1月，在巴黎发生一系列袭击事件导致17人丧生，包括针对讽刺刊物《查理周刊》（Charlie Hebdo）的袭击之后，欧洲人自发性地走上街头进行示威。人们游行抗议对欧洲文化本源“言论自由”的攻击。数百万人的集会横扫欧洲大陆，举着 “我是查理”标志，表示和报刊被袭事件的死者站在一起，而该报刊常以讽刺漫画的形式刊登先知穆罕穆德（Prophet Muhammad）。不少人警告道不要让恐袭事件掀起公众对整个穆斯林群体的敌对情绪，不管是针对穆斯林移民抑或是本土出生的穆斯林人。在德国，基社盟（CSU，德国执政党基督教民主联盟在巴伐利亚州的姐妹政党）主席霍斯特.赛贺佛（Horst Seehofer）对此的反应是典型的。他否定了恐怖主义和移民政策之间的任何联系，呼吁德国反伊斯兰的Pegida运动（译注：即德国国内反移民、反对西方伊斯兰化的排外运动）取消一项已计划好的示威活动，并称乐于见到国内所有政党都“克制了自身，没有从恐袭事件中获取任何政治筹码”。
After Friday night's attacks in Paris, however, for which Islamic State (IS) has claimed responsibility, MrSeehofer took a rather different line. The jihadists’ attacks illustrated theneed for “stronger control of Europe's external borders, but also of nationalborders,” he said; it was a matter of “restoring law and order in Europe.”Bavaria’s finance minister, Markus Söder, also of the CSU, agreed: “Parischanges everything” he declared, adding that the attacks meant the end of“the time of uncontrolled immigration”. Within hours of the attacks, CSUleaders were exploiting them as part of their effort to undercut Chancellor Angela Merkel and force her to slow the influx ofmigrants from the Middle East.
The contrast was telling. In theaftermath of Friday’s attacks, which killed at least 129 people inlocations around Paris, European leaders againissued statements of sympathy and outrage, while their citizens turned out enmasse with flowers and candles to show solidarity. But where the “Je suisCharlie” demonstrators resisted linking terrorism to immigration or Islam, themood this time has been more ambivalent. By targeting a well-known press outletand a Jewish supermarket, the Charlie Hebdo killers allowed Europeans toframe their outrage around positive ideals: freedom of speech and of religion.But the latest attacks seemed to hit public spaces at random—a Cambodianrestaurant, a football stadium, a concert hall. And some Europeans inevitablybegan linking the violence to the issue which has dominated their politics forthe past six months: the wave of refugees streaming into their continent fromthe Middle East.
Je suis Charlie 2? Pasexactement
The most explicit linkage came in Poland, where the right-wing Law and Justice (PiS) party won a landslide election victory in October, aided in part by fear of migrants. In a hastyop-ed on Saturday morning, the incoming PiS minister for European affairs,Konrad Szymanski, wrote that after the Paris attacks he saw “no political possibility” of implementing the European Union’s new scheme to redistribute asylum applicants among member states. “Poland must retain full control overits borders, asylum and immigration policy,” Mr Szymanski wrote.
最显著直率的关联来自波兰，那里10月份右翼的法律与公正党（PiS）赢得了压倒性胜选，部分原因源自其对移民的恐惧。来自PiS的新任波兰欧洲事务总长Konrad Szymanski于周六早间发表了一份急稿中写到：巴黎袭击事件后，就执行在欧盟成员国中重新分配避难申请这个新方案而言，他认识到“没有政治可能性”。“波兰必须对其边境、避难所以及移民政策保有全权控制，” Szymanski文章中提到。
Germany, which expects to take inmore than 1m asylum applicants this year, has fought hard for theredistribution policy, which the European Commission approved inSeptember over the bitter objections of several member states. A Polishrefusal to implement it would trigger a huge argument. (A German state assemblymember from Saxony, Gerd Lippold, tweeted angrily that if everyone in Europethought the way Mr Szymanski did, “walls will soon be going up between Germanyand Poland against auto thieves”.) Beata Szydlo, Poland’s incoming primeminister, refused to support Mr Szymanski’s line, and Mr Szymanski then backedoff, saying Poland could accept the deal if it were accompanied by “securityguarantees”.
德国预计今年要收纳超过1百万的避难求护人士，该国为重新分配难民的政策做出了很大努力，该政策于今年九月在数个成员国艰涩反对的情况下于欧洲委员会通过，而波兰的拒绝执行又将掀起诸多争议。（来自萨克森州Saxony的德国国家代表团成员Gerd Lippold怒发推特表示倘若每个欧洲人都像Szymanski那样想，那么“德波之间很快就会竖起一座高墙用来防止汽车贼”。） 波兰的新任总理贝娅塔·希德沃（BeataSzydlo）拒绝和Szymanski同一战线，Szymanski随即退一步表示波兰可以接受相应政策，但前提是配备“安全保障”。
But similar arguments were voiced inother central and eastern European countries, many of which voted against themigrant-redistribution deal. In the Czech Republic, Andrej Babis, theflamboyant finance minister and media billionaire who is the country’s mostpopular politician, said he thought it would be necessary to close the externalborders of Europe’s Schengen zone. The president, Milos Zeman, who hasexpressed concerns that Syrian migrants in the Czech Republic might stoneunfaithful women to enforce Sharia law, said the attacks were part of a war for“the future of European civilisation”. The fact that one of the Paris attackerswas carrying a Syrian passport was seized upon by those opposed to acceptingasylum seekers. Slovakia’s prime minister, Robert Fico, noted triumphantly thathe had warned other European leaders of “enormous security risks linked tomigration. Hopefully, some people will open their eyes now.”
但在其它中欧和东欧国家也有类似的争议在发声，其中不少都反对移民分配政策。在捷克共和国，那位浮夸的财长Andrej Babis、媒体界的亿万富翁，也是该国最受欢迎的政治家，他认为有必要关闭欧洲申根区的外部边界。而该国总统Milos Zeman担心去到捷克的叙利亚难民可能会遵循伊斯兰教法，向不忠妇女投掷石头，他称恐袭是为“欧洲文化之未来”而战的分子。巴黎恐袭包括一名持叙利亚护照的事实也被反对接受庇护申请的人士加以利用。斯洛伐克总理Robert Fico则得意表示他早已警告过其他欧洲领导人“和移民相关的重大安全隐患。希望现在一些人能睁眼看看了。”
In other countries, expressions of genuine sympathy were quickly linked to various political or diplomaticagendas. In Moscow, where citizens have ample experience of Islamist terror,the French embassy was flooded with gifts and flowers. But Vladimir Putin, thepresident, made sure that his condolence message to the French president,François Hollande, also made the case for ending Russia’s international isolation: “Fighting this evil requires the real unity of the forces of the whole international community.” In Turkey (pictured), thousands of parasympathetic to demonstrate solidarity between Paris and two other cities that have recently been hit by IS terror attacks: Ankara and Beirut. Meanwhile the president, Tayyip Recep Erdogan, insinuated that it was time to abandon thenotion of “my terrorist is good, yours is bad”—clearly referring to the Kurdishmilitias that Turkey is battling: the Kurdistan Workers’ Party, or PKK, which the West too considers a terrorist group, but also the People's Defence Units,or YPG, which the West regards as allies in the fight against IS.
其它国家，诚挚的同情言表很快关联到各种政治或外交事物上。在公民对伊斯兰恐怖活动富有经验的莫斯科，法国大使馆处礼物和鲜花不止。但俄国总统弗拉基米尔.普京（Vladimir Putin）确切向法国总统弗朗索瓦.奥朗德（FrançoisHollande）送达慰问电的同时，也声明应结束对俄罗斯的国际孤立：“对抗这样的邪恶需要整个国际社会力量真正意义的团结一致。”在土耳其（如图），成千上万的同情者游行示威，表示巴黎和另外两个近期遭到IS恐袭的城市－安卡拉和贝鲁特之间齐心共志。该国总统TayyipRecep Erdogan则暗指是时候摈弃“我的恐怖主义人士是好的，你的是坏的”这个概念了，这很明显是指向土耳其正在打击的库尔德民兵组织：库尔德工人党或称PKK，以及人民防卫军或称YPG，西方国家认为前者是个恐怖组织，而视后者为联盟共同对抗IS。
Western Europe's right-wing populistsalso seized upon the Paris attacks as evidence for their own agendas, just asthey did with the attacks against Charlie Hebdo. Geert Wilders, theDutch anti-immigrant firebrand whose party is currently leading in the polls,called on the Netherlands’ prime minister to seal the country’s borders. “Hewho sows the Koran reaps the jihad,” tweeted the predictably obnoxious Filip deWinter of Vlaams Belang, the Flemish far-right party. But such provocationsfailed to make much impact. Belgium was preoccupied by the news that threepeople said to be associated with the Paris attacks had been arrested outsideBrussels. Its interior minister, Jean Jambon, vowed a “root and branch” cleanupof the neighbourhood of Molenbeek, where the suspects lived. It was one of thesame neighbourhoods raided by Belgian anti-terror police in January duringoperations that led to the shooting of two suspects associated with the CharlieHebdo attacks.
西欧的右翼民粹派也抓住这次巴黎袭击事件作为其自身政论的证明，正如他们对《查理周刊》事件的所为。荷兰反移民的煽动者Geert Wilders领导的党派目前领跑民调，他呼吁荷兰总理封闭本国边境。“谁播种下《可兰经》，谁就收获圣战，”弗拉芒极右翼党派弗拉芒利益党Vlaams Belang那位意料中令人生厌的党人Filipde Winter发表了以上推特言论。但此类挑拨并未造成深刻影响。充斥在比利时的新闻是三名据称和巴黎袭击有关联人士被捕于布鲁塞尔外部。比利时内政部长Jean Jambon誓言要对袭击嫌疑人居住地－比利时城市莫伦贝克附近－“铲草除根”。一月份比利时反恐警察的突袭地点也包括这个地区，并击毙了两名《查理周刊》袭击事件嫌疑人。
Even so, in some of the places where the attacks might have been expected to inflame the migrant debate, they haven't—or, at least, have not done so yet. Just as the attacks were beginning on Friday, Sweden and Denmark were embroiled in a chaotic tit-for-tat squabble over controlling migration inflows. Sweden, which takes in more refugees than any other country in Europe on a per capita basis, announced on Thursday that it was introducing border controls, threatening to trap many asylum seekers who had been heading there in Denmark. The Danes, who have long had some of the toughest immigration policies in Europe, responded the next day with 34measures to dissuade migrants from coming, mainly by cutting benefits.
But neither the Danish People’s Party, the main Danish anti-immigrant group, nor their Swedish equivalents, the Sweden Democrats, have used the Paris attacks as a propaganda tool. The mood in both countries has been one of respect and non-partisan sympathy, just as itwas after the Charlie Hebdo attacks. Of course,anti-immigrant parties may simply be holding their fire, confident that images of Islamist terror will heighten resistance to immigration without the need for them to say anything.
It is heartening that Saturday’s popular demonstrations of solidarity with France, and European leaders’ messages of support, were full of calls, even if vague ones, not to allow terrorists to divide Europe’s citizens against each other. Yet with border controls going up in one European country after another, it will be hard to maintain that they have not.
Vlaams Belang：VB，Dutch for "Flemish Interest"，a right-wing populist and Flemishnationalist political party in the Flemish Region and Brussels of Belgium
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