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[2012.3.10] 偷猎: 黑色象牙

2012-3-12 08:26| 发布者: migmig| 查看: 8547| 评论: 16|原作者: songz2000

摘要: 去年是非洲大象悲惨的一年,今年会更糟糕
偷猎

黑色象牙


去年是非洲大象悲惨的一年,今年会更糟糕

Mar 10th 2012 | from the print edition

20120310_IRP005_0.jpg

如今作为大象会很不幸,尤其是在非洲。2011年检察机构截获将近24吨非法收获的象牙。创1990年来截获的最大宗记录,是2010年的两倍,据野生动物的守护者--交易网统计,需要有2,500头大象死去才能换来如此多的象牙。今年会更糟。在2012年的前六周内喀麦隆的一个州就有超过200头大象遇害。

死亡的威胁把非洲大象带回到上世纪70年代和80年代的象牙危机时代,那时正是偷猎猖獗很多种群濒临灭绝,这导致1989年象牙交易禁令的颁布,象牙的需求才急转直下。大象的种群得以恢复。然而禁令看起来很单薄无力,尤其是在东西及中部非洲,那里野生动物保护很薄弱偷猎仍然很盛行。

非法收集到的象牙装入发货集装箱从非洲肯尼亚直接进入坦桑尼亚。通常经过马来西亚,在那里伪造通关文件隐藏象牙的真实来源。多数再发往中国或日本。许多象牙流入开罗的集贸市场,中国商人是那里最大的买家。

中国是非洲偷猎象牙的最大买家;中国的象牙需求激增。据野生动植物贸易调查委员会(TRAFFIC)的埃斯蒙德马丁和露西维涅对中国两个城市的研究,自2004年以来那里的象牙类的销售增加了50%。

一些象牙也可以合法的交易,例如生长过程中自然死亡的大象或者因为保护人或庄稼开枪打死的大象。一些非洲国家在禁令颁布前的象牙库存,也可以合法销售。这些合法的象牙在中国的批发市场上价格在一公斤900美元左右,象牙的平均重量在5到9公斤之间.较为便宜的象牙品种是在西伯利亚冻土带定期发掘的已经灭绝的猛犸长毛象的象牙。

在南非,那里的偷猎相对较少,支持废除商业禁令的呼声却很高。但是在东非国家,特别在为了象牙引领野生大象屠杀的肯尼亚,认为偷猎能经常轻而易举地把非法象牙转为合法象牙的现状将增加象牙的需求。禁令颁布时的象牙需求的崩溃说明了这一点。据埃斯蒙德马丁和 露西维涅最近的研究。尽管中国市场的合法象牙都有标记,他们只在2011年的广东市场上看到不到一半的合法象牙,仅有十分之一的销售象牙的店铺有许可证。

如果商业禁令丧失了他的强制力,还会有什么能保护大象呢?一个正在兴起的“保护大象”运动的的发起人伊恩·道格拉斯 - 汉密尔顿说,对中国购物者进行教育,告诉他们交易背后的血腥,能对保护野生动物起到积极作用。目前在中国正有这样一场公益广告战役已经打响,他们由一些中国名人来发起号召,比如篮球明星姚明,斯诺克运动员丁俊晖,请求人们不要购买濒临灭绝的动物的产品。他们说,“当我们停止购买,杀戮也将停止。”

感谢译者 songz2000 点击此处阅读双语版

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引用 悠悠万事97 2012-3-12 06:18
回复 songz2000 的帖子

This year may be worse今年会更糟糕
今年或许会更糟糕(下同)

Almost 24 tonnes of illegally harvested ivory were seized by investigators in 2011 2011年检察机构截获将近24吨非法收获的象牙。
Investigator:n. 研究者;调查者;侦查员

the largest haul since records began in 1990创1990年来截获的最大宗记录,
是自1990年记录开始以来的最大截获量

more than twice the amount in 2010. 是2010年的两倍
超过2010年的两倍

Traffic, a wildlife watchdog, 据野生动物的守护者--交易网统计,
Watchdog:监察者,监督委员会

This threatens to return African elephants to the crisis times of the 1970s and 1980s, 死亡的威胁把非洲大象带回到
这种状况可能会让非洲大象回到上世纪70和80年代的危机时代,

Yet the effects of the ban seem to be wearing thin, 然而禁令看起来很单薄无力,
wearing thin:逐渐减弱(是随着时代迁移,禁令好像磨薄了一样)

where wildlife protection is generally weak and the poaching heaviest. 那里野生动物保护很薄弱偷猎仍然很盛行。
那里对野生动物的保护通常很薄弱,偷猎是最严重的。

Illegally gathered ivory typically leaves Africa from Kenya or Tanzania in shipping containers. 非法收集到的象牙装入发货集装箱从非洲肯尼亚直接进入坦桑尼亚。
非法收集到的象牙通常用集装箱船从肯尼亚或坦桑尼亚运出非洲。

Some tusks许多象牙
有些象牙
引用 lzf19 2012-3-12 08:45
“When the buying stops,” they say, “the killing can too.
没有买卖,就没有杀害。
引用 openthenext 2012-3-12 18:06
关于倒数第二段,需求崩溃和中国市场情况证明了什么?
引用 skyhawk174 2012-3-12 20:21
the founder of Save the Elephants, an advocacy group一个正在兴起的“保护大象”运动的的发起人    “保护大象”这个倡议组织的成立者  
引用 songz2000 2012-3-12 22:38
回复 openthenext 的帖子

呼呼,需求崩溃和中国市场情况我想是两个意思:
首先,禁令颁布之初,象牙的需求锐减,说明了监管和需求之间此消彼长的反比关系
中国市场的状况,正说明中国市场对象牙走私的监管不力,当然这责任也不完全在中国,不过中国毕竟是需求的起点
引用 yannanchen 2012-3-13 07:50
Some ivory can be traded legally, for example when the elephant that grew it died of natural causes 一些象牙也可以合法的交易,例如生长过程中(???)自然死亡的大象

这里的the elephant  that grew it= the elephant  which grew the ivory
引用 yannanchen 2012-3-13 08:09
In southern Africa, where there is relatively little poaching, support for lifting the trade ban is strong. But east African countries, especially Kenya, which led the original campaign for it, say this would increase demand for ivory, which would often be met by poaching—given how easy it is to pass off illegal ivory as the legal kind. The collapse in demand for ivory that followed the trade ban supports that argument. So does the recent research by Mr Martin and Ms Vigne. Though legal ivory in China’s markets is meant to be marked as such, they found this was true of less than half the ivory for sale in Guangzhou in January 2011. Only a tenth of shops selling ivory had the necessary licenses.在南非,那里的偷猎相对较少,支持废除商业禁令的呼声却很高。但是在东非国家,特别在为了象牙引领野生大象屠杀的肯尼亚,认为偷猎能经常轻而易举地把非法象牙转为合法象牙的现状将增加象牙的需求。禁令颁布时的象牙需求的崩溃说明了这一点。据埃斯蒙德马丁和 露西维涅最近的研究。尽管中国市场的合法象牙都有标记,他们只在2011年的广东市场上看到不到一半的合法象牙,仅有十分之一的销售象牙的店铺有许可证。
评论:especially Kenya, which led the original campaign for it, say this would increase demand for ivory, which would often be met by poaching—given how easy it is to pass off illegal ivory as the legal kind. 这句理解的不对啊。
which led the original campaign for it,= Kenya led the original campaign for the trade ban (it = trade ban)
say this would increase demand for ivory, =African countries say lifting the trade ban would increase demand for ivory. (this = lifting the trade ban)
which would often be met by poaching = the (increased ) demand for ivory would often be satisfied by poaching
given how easy it is to pass off illegal ivory as the legal kind. = because, or under the condition that , it is so easy to pass off illegal ivory as legal kind.
The collapse in demand for ivory that followed the trade ban supports that argument. So does the recent research by Mr Martin and Ms Vigne. 这句也不对。
= the collapse in demand supports that argument. The recent research also supports that argument.
Though legal ivory in China’s markets is meant to be marked as such, they found this was true of less than half the ivory for sale看到不到一半供销售之用的象牙有这样的标记,


引用 xjding 2012-3-13 21:54
In southern Africa
==========
探讨:在非洲南部(南非国名应为South Africa)

especially Kenya, which led the original campaign for it,
===========
探讨:尤其是禁止象牙贸易活动的发起国肯尼亚
引用 openthenext 2012-3-13 22:24
xjding 发表于 2012-3-13 21:54
In southern Africa
==========
探讨:在非洲南部(南非国名应为South Africa)

你这么一说我就理解了,say this would increase demand for ivory应该理解为取消禁令会增大象牙需求。
引用 songz2000 2012-3-14 12:44
回复 yannanchen 的帖子

多谢指教,仔细阅读一遍,确实是这样的,看来还是看得比较浮躁了
评论:especially Kenya, which led the original campaign for it, say this would increase demand for ivory, which would often be met by poaching—given how easy it is to pass off illegal ivory as the legal kind. 这句理解的不对啊。
which led the original campaign for it,= Kenya led the original campaign for the trade ban (it = trade ban)
say this would increase demand for ivory, =African countries say lifting the trade ban would increase demand for ivory. (this = lifting the trade ban)
which would often be met by poaching = the (increased ) demand for ivory would often be satisfied by poaching
有一点点异议:不过如果say this would increase demand for ivory,(this = lifting the trade ban)的话,original campaign 也应该是指lifting the trade ban
引用 songz2000 2012-3-14 22:01
回复 songz2000 的帖子

看了一遍,暂时保留意见,有时间再仔细看看,收益匪浅
引用 chh3688 2012-3-15 09:37
引用 openthenext 2012-3-15 17:14
这倒数第二段越改越不行了,干脆连语法结构都是自己编出来的了。
引用 ECOwatanabe 2012-3-18 15:44
Some ivory can be traded legally, for example when the elephant that grew it died of natural causes or was shot to protect people or crops.
原译:一些象牙也可以合法的交易,例如生长过程中自然死亡的大象或者因为保护人或庄稼开枪打死的大象。
可否译作:有些买卖的象牙是合法的。比如象自然死亡后,或者为了保护人或者庄稼而射杀象后得到的象牙。
原译中第一句的主语是象牙,而第二句则是大象。。感觉有些别捏~
引用 ECOwatanabe 2012-3-18 15:50
A cheaper sort comes from extinct woolly mammoths, which are periodically excavated from Siberia’s tundra.
此句中的 periodically 可否取 偶尔,偶然的意思?定期挖掘这个事情。。。
还有个疑问就是猛犸象的象牙价值会cheaper吗?对原文有些不够理解。。
引用 xiongbaobao 2012-8-13 18:37
ECOwatanabe 发表于 2012-3-18 15:50
A cheaper sort comes from extinct woolly mammoths, which are periodically excavated from Siberia’s ...

俺是新人,刚刚看到这篇。貌似评论的有点晚,既然猛犸象实际价格是比较贵的,那这里的cheaper的意思可不可以理解为获取象牙的时候耗资较少比较容易呢。。。

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